define prejudice, racism, and stereotypes. Talk about the significant social-psychological and sociological theory of prejudice. Define how the nature the prejudice has changed.

You are watching: While prejudice is an attitude, discrimination is _____.


Let’s examine racial and ethnic prejudice further and also then revolve to differentiate in the next section. Prejudice and discrimination are regularly confused, yet the simple difference between them is this: prejudice is the attitude, while discrimination is the behavior. More specifically, racial and also ethnic prejudice describes a set of an unfavorable attitudes, beliefs, and judgments about whole categories of people, and about individual members the those categories, since of their regarded race and/or ethnicity. A carefully related concept is racism, or the belief that specific racial or ethnic groups are worse to one’s own. Prejudice and also racism room often based on racial and also ethnic stereotypes, or simplified, mistaken generalizations around people because of their race and/or ethnicity. While cultural and other distinctions do exist among the various American racial and ethnic groups, numerous of the see we have of such groups are unfounded and hence stereotypes. An instance of the stereotypes that white world have of other groups shows up in number 7.5, in i m sorry white respondents in the basic Social survey (GSS) are less likely to think blacks room intelligent than they room to think whites room intelligent.

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Figure 7.5: consciousness by Non-Latino White respondent of the intelligence of White and also Black AmericansSource: Data from basic Social Survey, 2010.

Social-Psychological Explanations

One that the first social-psychological explanations of prejudice focused on the “authoritarian personality” (Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswick, Levinson, & Sanford, 1950).Adorno, T. W., Frenkel-Brunswick, E., Levinson, D. J., & Sanford, R. N. (1950). The authoritarian personality. New York, NY: Harper. According to this view, authoritarian personalities develop in childhood in solution to parental who practice harsh discipline. Individuals with authoritarian individualities emphasize such points as obedience come authority, a rigid adherence to rules, and also low accept of world (out-groups) not favor oneself. Many studies find strong racial and also ethnic prejudice among such individuals (Sibley & Duckitt, 2008).Sibley, C. G., & Duckitt, J. (2008). Personality and prejudice: A meta-analysis and also theoretical review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 12, 248–279. Yet whether their prejudice tribe from your authoritarian personalities or rather from the fact that their parents were more than likely prejudiced us remains an important question.

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Figure 7.6: Authoritarian personalities are said to construct in childhood indigenous harsh parental discipline and also to be attached to racial and also ethnic prejudice. Although many civilization with authoritarian characters are prejudiced, it continues to be unclear whether their prejudice stems indigenous their individualities or from your parents’ own prejudice. © Thinkstock

Another early and also still well-known social-psychological explanation is called frustration or scapegoat concept (Dollard, Doob, Miller, Mowrer, & Sears, 1939).Dollard, J., Doob, L. W., Miller, N. E., Mowrer, O. H., & Sears, R. R. (1939). Frustration and aggression. New Haven, CT: Yale university Press. In this view people who experience various kinds that problems become frustrated and also tend come blame your troubles on groups that are frequently disliked in the real human being (e.g., racial, ethnic, and spiritual minorities). This minorities are hence scapegoats because that the actual sources that people’s misfortunes. Several psychology experiments uncover that when human being are frustrated, they indeed become much more prejudiced. In one early on experiment, university students who were intentionally not given enough time to settle a puzzle were an ext prejudiced ~ the experiment than prior to it (Cowen, Landes, & Schaet, 1959).Cowen, E. L., Landes, J., & Schaet, D. E. (1959). The results of mild frustration on the expression the prejudiced attitudes. Journal that Abnormal and also Social Psychology, 64, 33–38.

In the actual world, scapegoating at a fixed level has been fairly common. In middle ages Europe, Jews were frequently blamed and persecuted once economic conditions were bad or when war initiatives were failing. After the bubonic plague damaged out in 1348 and also eventually killed much more than one-third of all Europeans, Jews to be blamed either because that deliberately dispersing the plague or because that angering God since they were no Christian. As soon as Germany suffered economic hardship after people War I, Jews again showed a convenient scapegoat, and anti-Semitism helped fuel the climb of Hitler and Nazism (Litvinoff, 1988).Litvinoff, B. (1988). The burn bush: Anti-Semitism and world history. New York, NY: E. P. Dutton.


Sociological Explanations

Sociological explanations that prejudice incorporate few of the principles and also processes discussed in previous chapters. One renowned explanation emphasizes conformity and also socialization (also referred to as social learning theory). In this view, civilization who are prejudiced are just conforming to the society in which they flourish up, and prejudice is the an outcome of socialization from parents, peers, the news media, and also other various facets of your culture. Sustaining this view, research studies have uncovered that civilization tend come become an ext prejudiced as soon as they relocate to areas where civilization are very prejudiced and less prejudiced when they move to places where world are less prejudiced (Aronson, 2008).Aronson, E. (2008). The social animal (10th ed.). New York: Worth. If world in the southern today proceed to be an ext prejudiced than those outside the South, together we talk about later, even though legal distinction ended much more than four years ago, the affect of their culture on your socialization may assist explain these beliefs.

A second sociological explanation emphasizes economic and political competition and also is typically called group hazard theory (Quillian, 2006; Hughes & Tuch, 2003).Quillian, L. (2006). New approaches to knowledge racial prejudice and discrimination. Annual evaluation of Sociology, 32, 299–328; Hughes, M., & Tuch, S. A. (2003). Gender distinctions in whites’ racial attitudes: room women’s mindsets really an ext favorable? Social Psychology Quarterly, 66, 384–401. In this check out prejudice occurs from competition end jobs and other resources and from disagreement over miscellaneous political issues. When groups vie through each other over these matters, lock often come to be hostile toward each other. Amid together hostility, that is simple to end up being prejudiced toward the team that threatens your financial or political standing. A renowned version of this straightforward explanation is Susan Olzak’s (1992)Olzak, S. (1992). The dynamics of ethnic competition and conflict. Stanford, CA: Stanford college Press.

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ethnic compete theory, which holds that ethnic prejudice and conflict boost when 2 or an ext ethnic groups uncover themselves contending for jobs, housing, and other goals.