Which of this is no a carcinogen?Which of this is no a carcinogen?
A. Tobacco smoke
C. UV light
E. Every one of the above are carcinogens
_____ is a carcinogen that promotes colon cancer._____ is a carcinogen the promotes colon cancer.
You are watching: Which of these is responsible for initiating a signal transduction pathway?
B. UV light
D. A virus
Which of this acts as a 2nd messenger?
Which of these is responsible for initiating a signal transduction pathway?
What function does a transcription element play in a signal transduction pathway?
A. By binding to a plasma membrane receptor the initiates a cascade.
B. That relays a signal from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane.
C. That activates relay proteins.
D. Through binding to DNA that triggers the transcription of a specific gene.
E. It is a plasma membrane protein that binds signal molecules.
A signal transduction pathway is initiated as soon as a _____ binding to a receptor.
A. G protein
B. Tyrosine kinase
D. Signal molecule
E. Cyclic AMP
Which of this acts as a second messenger?
A. G-protein-linked receptor
B. Cyclic AMP
C. G protein
D. Protein kinase
E. Adenylyl kinase
Calcium ions that action as second messengers are stored in _____.
A. Endoplasmic reticula
_____ catalyzes the production of _____, i m sorry then opens an ion channel the releases _____ into the cell"s cytoplasm.
A. Phospholipase C ... IP3 .... Ca2+
B. Adenylyl cyclase ... IP3 .... Ca2+
C. Protein kinase ... PIP2 ... Na+
D. Adenylyl cyclase ... Cyclic AMP ... Ca2+
E. Phospholipase C ... Cyclic AMP ... Ca2+
A protein kinase activating countless other protein kinases is an instance of _____.
D. A cellular response
The cleavage that glycogen by glycogen phosphorylase publication _____.
E. Nothing: glycogen phosphorylase cannot cleave glycogen
Epinephrine acts together a signal molecule the attaches to _____ proteins.
A. Nuclear receptor
B. Ion-channel receptor
C. Intracellular receptor
D. G-protein-linked receptor
E. Receptor tyrosine kinase
Which of these is a receptor for calcium ions?
A. G protein
C. Adenylyl cyclase
Which of these is no correct?
A. Ion networks are found on both the plasma membrane and also the endoplasmic reticulum.
B. Tyrosine-kinase receptor consist of two polypeptides that sign up with when set off by a signal molecule.
C. Kinases room enzymes the phosphorylate other molecules.
D. Phospholipase C catalyzes the formation of IP3.
E. Cyclic AMP binds to calmodulin.
A toxin that inhibits the production of GTP would interfere v the function of a signal transduction pathway that is initiated through the binding the a signal molecule come _____ receptors.
E. Receptor tyrosine kinase
Which of these is a reasonable signal transduction pathway?
A. An intracellular receptor activates phospholipase C, which cleaves a membrane protein to type IP3, which then activates the opened of an age channel protein, i m sorry releases cyclic AMP into the cytoplasm, where it binds to one intracellular enzyme that carries the end a response.
B. A receptor tyrosine kinase activates adenylyl cyclase, i m sorry activates phospholipase C, i beg your pardon converts ATP right into cyclic AMP, which binds to an intracellular enzyme the carries out a response.
C. A G-protein-linked receptor activates G protein, which activates phospholipase C, i m sorry cleaves a membrane lipid to kind IP3, which binding to a calcium channel top top the ER, which opens up to relax calcium ions right into the cytoplasm, which tie to an intracellular enzyme the carries the end a response.
D. One ion-channel receptor opens, permitting a steroid hormone to enter the cell; the steroid hormone climate activates protein kinases that transform GTP to GDP, which binding to one intracellular enzyme the carries out a response.
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C. A G-protein-linked receptor activates G protein, i beg your pardon activates phospholipase C, i m sorry cleaves a membrane lipid to type IP3, which binds to a calcium channel on the ER, which opens to release calcium ions into the cytoplasm, which bind to an intracellular enzyme that carries the end a response.