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Which of this is no a carcinogen?Which of this is no a carcinogen?

A. Tobacco smoke

B. Testosterone

C. UV light

D. Fat

E. Every one of the above are carcinogens


_____ is a carcinogen that promotes colon cancer._____ is a carcinogen the promotes colon cancer.

You are watching: Which of these is responsible for initiating a signal transduction pathway?

A. Fat

B. UV light

C. Estrogen

D. A virus

E. Testosterone


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Which of this acts as a 2nd messenger?

A. B

B. A

C. C

D. D

E. E


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Which of these is responsible for initiating a signal transduction pathway?

A. A

B. B

C. C

D. D

E. E


What function does a transcription element play in a signal transduction pathway?

A. By binding to a plasma membrane receptor the initiates a cascade.

B. That relays a signal from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane.

C. That activates relay proteins.

D. Through binding to DNA that triggers the transcription of a specific gene.

E. It is a plasma membrane protein that binds signal molecules.


A signal transduction pathway is initiated as soon as a _____ binding to a receptor.

A. G protein

B. Tyrosine kinase

C. Calmodulin

D. Signal molecule

E. Cyclic AMP


Which of this acts as a second messenger?

A. G-protein-linked receptor

B. Cyclic AMP

C. G protein

D. Protein kinase

E. Adenylyl kinase


Calcium ions that action as second messengers are stored in _____.

A. Endoplasmic reticula

B. Peroxisomes

C. Lysosomes

D. Chloroplasts

E. Mitochondria


_____ catalyzes the production of _____, i m sorry then opens an ion channel the releases _____ into the cell"s cytoplasm.

A. Phospholipase C ... IP3 .... Ca2+

B. Adenylyl cyclase ... IP3 .... Ca2+

C. Protein kinase ... PIP2 ... Na+

D. Adenylyl cyclase ... Cyclic AMP ... Ca2+

E. Phospholipase C ... Cyclic AMP ... Ca2+


A protein kinase activating countless other protein kinases is an instance of _____.

A. Sensitization

B. Deactivation

C. Amplification

D. A cellular response

E. Mutualism


The cleavage that glycogen by glycogen phosphorylase publication _____.

A. Cellulose

B. Fructose-1-phosphate

C. Glucose-1-phosphate

D. Galactose-1-phosphate

E. Nothing: glycogen phosphorylase cannot cleave glycogen


Epinephrine acts together a signal molecule the attaches to _____ proteins.

A. Nuclear receptor

B. Ion-channel receptor

C. Intracellular receptor

D. G-protein-linked receptor

E. Receptor tyrosine kinase


Which of these is a receptor for calcium ions?

A. G protein

B. PIP2

C. Adenylyl cyclase

D. Calmodulin

E. IP3


Which of these is no correct?

A. Ion networks are found on both the plasma membrane and also the endoplasmic reticulum.

B. Tyrosine-kinase receptor consist of two polypeptides that sign up with when set off by a signal molecule.

C. Kinases room enzymes the phosphorylate other molecules.

D. Phospholipase C catalyzes the formation of IP3.

E. Cyclic AMP binds to calmodulin.


A toxin that inhibits the production of GTP would interfere v the function of a signal transduction pathway that is initiated through the binding the a signal molecule come _____ receptors.

A. G-protein-linked

B. Steroid

C. Intracellular

D. Ion-channel

E. Receptor tyrosine kinase


Which of these is a reasonable signal transduction pathway?

A. An intracellular receptor activates phospholipase C, which cleaves a membrane protein to type IP3, which then activates the opened of an age channel protein, i m sorry releases cyclic AMP into the cytoplasm, where it binds to one intracellular enzyme that carries the end a response.

B. A receptor tyrosine kinase activates adenylyl cyclase, i m sorry activates phospholipase C, i beg your pardon converts ATP right into cyclic AMP, which binds to an intracellular enzyme the carries out a response.

C. A G-protein-linked receptor activates G protein, which activates phospholipase C, i m sorry cleaves a membrane lipid to kind IP3, which binding to a calcium channel top top the ER, which opens up to relax calcium ions right into the cytoplasm, which tie to an intracellular enzyme the carries the end a response.

D. One ion-channel receptor opens, permitting a steroid hormone to enter the cell; the steroid hormone climate activates protein kinases that transform GTP to GDP, which binding to one intracellular enzyme the carries out a response.

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C. A G-protein-linked receptor activates G protein, i beg your pardon activates phospholipase C, i m sorry cleaves a membrane lipid to type IP3, which binds to a calcium channel on the ER, which opens to release calcium ions into the cytoplasm, which bind to an intracellular enzyme that carries the end a response.