" data-medium-file="https://urbanbreathnyc.com.files.urbanbreathnyc.com.com/2012/01/m1001.jpg?w=300" data-large-file="https://urbanbreathnyc.com.files.urbanbreathnyc.com.com/2012/01/m1001.jpg?w=525" class="size-medium wp-image-629" title="M1001" src="https://art109wcc.files.urbanbreathnyc.com.com/2012/01/m1001.jpg?w=300&h=235" alt="" width="300" height="235" srcset="https://art109wcc.files.urbanbreathnyc.com.com/2012/01/m1001.jpg?w=300&h=235 300w, https://art109wcc.files.urbanbreathnyc.com.com/2012/01/m1001.jpg?w=598&h=470 598w, https://art109wcc.files.urbanbreathnyc.com.com/2012/01/m1001.jpg?w=150&h=118 150w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" />Map the Europe in 1648 ~ the treaty of WestphaliaThe Thirty Years’ War ended with the treaty of Westphalia, i beg your pardon granted freedom of religious choice in Europe. While southern Flanders stayed under Catholic Spanish control, the north provinces damaged away to kind an live independence republic called the United districts of the Netherlands, or the netherlands Republic. Administrate by a prosperous middle class, the dutch Republic prospered prosperous through trade. Amsterdam came to be one that the world’s largest trading center, and its warehouses stored spices, gold, silk, ivory, sugar, and porcelain. Return the majority of the population was Protestant, other spiritual faiths were tolerated, which make cities prefer Antwerp one attractive refuge because that Jews who confronted persecution in much less tolerant Catholic countries.

You are watching: Which of the genres in which rembrandt worked was the most lucrative for the dutch painter?

Pieter Saenredam, inner of St. Bavo, Haarlem, 1660Worcester art Museum

Most Protestant churches looked prefer this one, painted by the dutch artist Pieter Saenredam, who devoted in paintings of church interiors. The Protestant half on spiritual images deprived artists of the rewarding church commissions that had actually been a mainstay the the profession. Artists functioning in good news countries as such had to seek brand-new kinds of topics to entice clients.

Quiringh van Brekelenkam, The Tailor’s Workshop, 1661Rijksmuseum

Because the the Protestant ban on religious images, netherlands artists devoted in painting genre scenes — meaning scenes of daily life.

“Artists now use the term genre, a French word definition “type” or “kind,” to explain scenes showing human being at work, play, or rest. The seventeenth-century Dutch, who did more than any type of other nation to popularize together images, go not view them together a solitary category but spoke of “merry companies,” “picnics,” “bordello scenes,” and the like. Nevertheless of the term, the intention of genre paint is not who human being are, as with portraiture, but rather what they are doing.”Johannes Vermeer and Dutch scene of everyday Life in the 1600s (NGA)

The paints were generally tiny in scale — due to the fact that they were created middle class homes, rather than grandiose churches and palaces — and also bankers and also merchants weren’t the only ones purchase art! small shopkeepers, butchers, and tailors additionally bought photos to decorate their homes, as deserve to be viewed in this painting of a tailor’s workshop. No one were the photos “made come order” the way they had remained in the past; instead, artist mass-produced pictures that to be purchased later on by client (of course, portraits were still done on commission). Come facilitate this mass-production approach, artists specialized in certain genres. Common genre subjects had portraits, landscape, tho lives, and also scenes of day-to-day middle class life.

The good news Ethic and the soul of CapitalismHow walk the Dutch become so prosperous? The German sociologist Max Weber attempted come answer this question in a famous collection of essays title The protestant Ethic and also the spirit of Capitalism released in 1930. In this study, Weber observed the Protestants change their emphasis from religious devotion to laborious labor, believing that tough work was a “calling,” and a moral obligation, and also that the buildup of riches was a sign of oh my god favor:

“Calvinists believe in predestination–that God has already determined that is saved and damned. As Calvinism developed, a deep psychological require for clues around whether one to be actually conserved arose, and also Calvinists looked to their success in worldly task for those clues. Thus, they pertained to value profit and material success as indicators of God’s favor.”http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/protestantethic/summary.html

Dutch genre scenes reflect these values in a range of ways. Scenes of thriving middle course life commemorated the virtues of industry, while idleness was denounced in satirical images that warned versus the vices of laziness. Still life paintings celebrated the accumulation of riches by showing expensive objects in loving detail – yet Protestant leaders also warned versus wasteful spending on only luxuries. Vanitas symbols, that reminded viewers that the transience of all earthly possessions, drove house the blog post that such pleasures were only temporary.

Jan Steen, In luxury Look the end (Beware that Luxury), 1663Kunsthistorisches Museum, Gemäldegalerie, Vienna, Austria

Dutch painters took equal joy in satirical scene poking funny at people who failed come live through the rule of the Protestant work-related ethic (the equivalent to well-known comedies favor The Simpsons and also Family Guy). This picture by january Steen depicts a household in complete disarray. The lady the the house has actually fallen asleep, and the household has erupted into chaos. On the left, a boy in a high chair has actually flung that food to the ground, if a dog eats the pie top top the table; behind the sleeping matron, an additional young son smokes a pipe, if a third investigates a cabinet the is normally kept under lock and also key. In the center, a young girl (who appears quite tipsy), is seated through a young man, whose leg is overcome flirtatiously over hers. Behind them is a Quaker v a duck top top his shoulder (suggesting that the Quaker is a “quacker”), who feebly tries to regain order by analysis from the Bible. Meanwhile, the floor is littered with bits of actors off food, which has attracted a pig, that sneaks in through a door ~ above the right. To the Dutch, all of this would have served as a delightful warning against the risks of “luxury” and also excess.

Rembrandt valve Rijn, Tobit and also Anna through a Kid, 1626Rijksmuseum

Rembrandt van RijnOne that the greatest masters of netherlands Baroque painting was Rembrandt van Rijn, who functioned in a selection of subjects, and also was renowned because that etchings and also engravings, as much as because that his paintings. Rembrandt continued to paint spiritual subjects, regardless of Protestant attitudes. Yet his method to spiritual subjects remained consistent with good news values: Luther and Calvin both emphasized the importance of reading the bible, and Rembrandt’s spiritual subjects reflect his deeply personal interpretation of story from the Old and new Testaments.

Caravaggio’s tenebrism deserve to be viewed in Rembrandt’s dark, night-like scenes; prefer Caravaggio as well, he supplied real people as models because that his spiritual subjects. That sometimes depicted family members (as well together himself) in the guise of religious saints and also prophets come express his profound id that Holiness can be found in each and every individual, and also that beauty is miscellaneous that originates from within.

Rembrandt valve Rijn, Head the Jesus Christ, c. 1648-54Detroit academy of Art

Rembrandt often used Jewish models for his Old testimony scenes, recognizing the the historical characters of the holy bible were themselves Jewish and also Middle eastern by birth:

“For Rembrandt, functioning from a Jewish model would have actually been a means of returning to a historic truth, of portraying Jesus unadulterated, together the Jew the he was—a kind of realism scoffing at tradition.”Louvre

Peter Paul Rubens, lower from the Cross, 1612-1614
Rembrandt valve Rijn, lower from the Cross, 1634
Rembrandt’s method to spiritual subjects was really different from his Catholic contemporaries, as can be seen in this comparison. Although Rembrandt’s Descent indigenous the Cross was based straight on this previously version by Rubens, the differences in between the 2 works is telling: if Rubens’ work-related is operatic, complete of cool gestures and also magnificently costumed figures, Rembrandt’s version appears to shun all grandeur, in order to focus an ext intensely on the tender human emotions that the scene. As Gardner’s Art with the Ages observes:

“Rembrandt’s pictures are no the opulent, overwhelming arts of Baroque Italy. Rather, his arts is the of a committed Calvinist who wanted to translate biblical narratives in person (as opposed to lofty theological) terms. The spirituality stillness that Rembrandt’s spiritual art is that of inward-turning contemplation, far from the choirs and trumpets and the heavenly tumult the Bernini or Pozzo . . . .”Gardner’s Art through the Ages, p. 310

The Psychology the LightIf Rembrandt’s pictures are “quiet,” they room no much less psychologically intense — and also one the his primary means of send emotion and also psychology is through his usage of light. In Rembrandt’s pictures, the light carries every one of the emotional intensity:

“Rembrandt uncovered that through manipulating the direction, intensity, distance, and surface structure of light and also shadow, he could render the most subtle nuances the character and also mood . . .”Gardner’s Art v the Ages, p. 303

Rembrandt, Portrait that Herman Doomer, 1640Metropolitan Museum

Rembrandt’s main resource of income came native portraits. In fact, he came to be one of the many sought after ~ portraitists in Holland, probably because he knew specifically what his dutch patrons wanted. Calvinist ministers exhorted their congregation come beware the the vanity that worldly possessions, and the dutch deliberately pull in subdued color in stimulate to stop the flashy finery the was typical in other countries. However the Dutch also wanted come celebrate their wealth, and in his portraits Rembrandt knew how to make his sitters look “rich” if still appearing “modest.” as Simon Schama says, that knew how to permit them “show off without showing off.”

The many prestigious portrait commissions come from netherlands militia service providers who on regular basis commissioned team portraits to commemorate their yearly banquets. Traditionally, this portraits were really stiff and also formal — much like a fifth grade class photo — but Frans Hals, who committed in this genre, presented a brand-new liveliness by portraying members in a candid minute of merrymaking. Number of of the sitters look out at the viewer, making us feel as if we have just join the party. This sort of “viewer participation” web links Hals through artists of the Catholic Baroque, even if the purposes are an extremely different.


Rembrandt, The Nigh watch (Khan Academy)

Watch the following video clip and listen to Simon Schama’s discussion of Rembrandt’s portraits, and the fail of his Night Watch:

Simon Schama: The strength of art – Rembrandt 2/4

Later WorkThe patron’s that Rembrandt’s Night watch did not prefer the work, and also they refuse to pay him. We can only speculate regarding their reasons, but the collection back was simply one of countless that Rembrandt experienced at this time: in 1642 his wife Saskia died, and in 1656 the was declared bankrupt (Rembrandt to be a well known spendthrift, and had great difficulties regulating his money). It was at this allude that his spiritual subjects became much more introspective and also contemplative (as Simon Schama says, “he turned down the volume that the world and also switched come an inner, quiet radiance”), however his painting layout also changed dramatically.

Rembrandt, A woman Bathing in a stream (Hendrickje Stoffels?), 1654National Gallery, London

Compared come his previously work, this paint of a mrs wading in a currently is substantial sketchy, and loosely painted. Rembrandt provided a variety of techniques, such together scumbling, impasto, and also sgrafitto. Come his contemporaries, the format seemed sloppy and also unfinished, yet Rembrandt interpreted that this sketchy means painting gave his subjects an immediacy that might not be achieved with a an ext highly detailed and also realistic style. As Gardner’s Art v the Ages explains, the artist was in reality attempting to achieve an even more naturalistic calculation of the fugitive results of light:

“This method is closer come reality since the eye perceive light and dark no as static but as constantly subtly changing.”Gardner’s Art through the Ages, p. 309


“None of his portraits is an observed document of a person’s appearance. Every is a questioning that what that is to exist. Each tries to acquire at the invisible mind, soul, personality – whatever you contact the inner person, Rembrandt paints it.”Jonathan Jones, “Self Portrait in ~ the period of 63, Rembrandt,” The Guardian

To connect the intangible psychology of the “invisible mind,” Rembrandt offered lighting results that create subtle nuances of character and also mood, and also he applied his repaint in a loose “painterly” format that sacrificed information in favor of expression. The character and also personality the comes with from his self portraits is therefore convincing that we feel prefer we space in the existence of the male himself. Together Jonathan Jones put it: This is not like looking in ~ a painting. It is choose meeting Rembrandt. You have actually no idea what come say come him, and also fear what that is around to say to you.”

In Rembrandt’s self-portraits we witness the culmination that Renaissance Humanism and also its awakening self-awareness — for below we conference an individual in the modern-day sense the the term.

Rembrandt, self Portrait, 1659 (Khan Academy)https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/monarchy-enlightenment/baroque-art1/holland/v/rembrandt-nga-self-portrait

Jan Vermeer, The Kitchen Maid, 1658Rijksmuseum

The other good Dutch painter was january Vermeer, who made his living as an innkeeper and art dealer. The painted only a small handful the paintings during his lifetime, many of them interior scenes favor this one, with a single figure in an interior, lit by light from a home window on the left. The setting is tranquil and also serene, as if time was standing still:

“Vermeer’s paints are constantly lit by also daylight, fairly unlike the dark and light contrast in Rembrandt’s work. Vermeer’s light is not supposed to give a dramatic effect. Fairly it helps establish a calm atmosphere.”Rijksmuseum

Tiny point out of LightHow carry out you repaint “highlights” top top something the is currently light in color? Vermeer achieved the brilliant light in this painting by applying tiny flecks of white on the milkmaid’s yellow bodice, the edge of the jug and also bowl, and the bread. Increase close, it could look favor a negative case the dandruff, but from a normal viewing street the white flecks create the figure of excellent light.


Camera ObscuraIt is widely believed that Vermeer offered a camera obscura together an aid to his paintings. A camera obscura is a crate (or room) through a pinhole that creates one aperture. Objects outside the box room projected on the interior wall and inverted. This concept is supported by the “circles the confusion” that show up in Vermeer’s pictures. They are prefer the blurry components of a photo that are slightly the end of focus.

See more: (San Luis Potosí) Matehuala San Luis Potosi, Matehuala Photos

Jan Vermeer and also the Camera Obscura (National gallery of Art)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5SpaJtCv1hI

Learn more: http://www.nga.gov/exhibitions/verm_4.shtm

Tim’s Vermeer — a brand-new movie around a computer graphic artist who has actually been investigating Vermeer’s use of an innovation to produce his pictures

" data-medium-file="https://urbanbreathnyc.com.files.urbanbreathnyc.com.com/2012/01/vermeer_woman_pitcher.jpg?w=265" data-large-file="https://urbanbreathnyc.com.files.urbanbreathnyc.com.com/2012/01/vermeer_woman_pitcher.jpg?w=525" class=" wp-image-662" title="Vermeer_woman_pitcher" src="https://art109wcc.files.urbanbreathnyc.com.com/2012/01/vermeer_woman_pitcher.jpg?w=584&h=660" alt="" width="584" height="660" srcset="https://art109wcc.files.urbanbreathnyc.com.com/2012/01/vermeer_woman_pitcher.jpg?w=584&h=660 584w, https://art109wcc.files.urbanbreathnyc.com.com/2012/01/vermeer_woman_pitcher.jpg?w=133&h=150 133w, https://art109wcc.files.urbanbreathnyc.com.com/2012/01/vermeer_woman_pitcher.jpg?w=265&h=300 265w, https://art109wcc.files.urbanbreathnyc.com.com/2012/01/vermeer_woman_pitcher.jpg?w=768&h=869 768w, https://art109wcc.files.urbanbreathnyc.com.com/2012/01/vermeer_woman_pitcher.jpg 861w" sizes="(max-width: 584px) 100vw, 584px" />Jan Vermeer, Young Woman through a Pitcher, 1662Metropolitan MuseumVermeer’s scientific study that the properties of irradiate can likewise be seen in this photo of a young mrs paused at an open window. The atmosphere is tranquil, and also the pale clear light the floods the room evokes the soft warmth of the at an early stage morning sun. The brightness of the picture can it is in attributed to the way Vermeer painted shadows. He found that shadows room not colorless, yet actually reflect the shade of objects approximately them. The shadows top top the woman’s white veil room not gray and also dull, however are tinged with purple and also blue, reflect from the blue skies out the window. Similarly the pitcher choose up the blue of the garment hanging end the ago of the chair, and also the tray choose up the myriad colors of the carpet extending the table.

Vermeer’s Young Woman v a Pitcher, Smarthistory

Vermeer’s LightAs we have actually seen, light to be a central element in Baroque art. Bernini provided it because that dramatic effect in his work, and also Caravaggio supplied it to suggest the mysterious existence of God. Rembrandt manipulated light to connect nuances the psychology, mood, and emotion, however Vermeer used light very differently: he learned light prefer a scientist, and applied it prefer a poet!

Johannes Vermeer, mrs Holding a Balance (Khan Academyhttps://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/monarchy-enlightenment/baroque-art1/holland/v/vermeer-woman-with-balance


Web Resources:

Genre painting in north Europe, Heilbrunn Timeline of art Historyhttp://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/gnrn/hd_gnrn.htm

Dutch tho Lifes and also Landscape of the 1600s (NGA)http://www.nga.gov/collection/gallery/gg47/gg47-main1.html


Rembrandt’s me Portraitshttp://www.rembrandtpainting.net/rembrandt_self_portraits.htm

Rembrandt valve Rijn, Heilbrunn timeline of art Historyhttp://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/rmbt/hd_rmbt.htm

Rembrandt valve Rijn Prints, Timeline of art Historyhttp://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/rembp/hd_rembp.htm

Johannes Vermeer, Heilbrunn Timeline of arts Historyhttp://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/verm/hd_verm.htm

Johannes Vermeer and also Dutch scene of daily Life in the 1600s (National gallery of Art)http://www.nga.gov/collection/gallery/gg51/gg51-main1.html

Johannes Vermeer, The art of Painting, national Gallery that Arthttp://www.nga.gov/exhibitions/verm_4.shtm