Learning Objectives

specify network effects. Acknowledge products and also services that are subject to network effects. Recognize the components that add value come products and services subject to network effects.

Network effectsAlso recognized as Metcalfe’s Law, or network externalities. When the value of a product or business increases together its variety of users expands. Are occasionally referred to as “Metcalfe’s Law” or “network externalities.” however don’t permit the dull names stupid you—this principle is rocket fuel for an innovation firms. Bill entrances leveraged network impacts to rotate Windows and Office right into virtual monopolies and in the procedure became the wealthiest guy in America. Note Zuckerberg that Facebook, Sergey Brin and also Larry page of Google, Pierre Omidyar of eBay, Andrew Mason the Groupon, Evan Williams and also Biz stone of Twitter, Nik Zennström and also Janus Friis the Skype, Steve Chen and Chad Hurley that YouTube, every these entrepreneurs have constructed massive user bases by leveraging the concept. When network effects are present, the worth of a product or business increases as the number of users grows. Simply, more users = more value. The course, most products aren’t topic to network effects—you most likely don’t treatment if who wears the very same socks, supplies the exact same pancake syrup, or buys the same trash bags as you. However when network impacts are existing they’re among the many important reasons you’ll pick one product or organization over another. You may care really much, for example, if others are component of her social network, if your video game console is popular, and if the Wikipedia post you’re to express has had actually prior readers. And all those folks that bought HD DVD players sure were bummed once the rest of the human being declared Blu-ray the winner. In each of this examples, network impacts are in ~ work.

You are watching: Which of the following products or services is not subject to network effects?

Not That type of Network

The hatchet “network” periodically stumps world when first learning about network effects. In this context, a network doesn’t refer to the physical wires or wireless equipment that connect pieces that electronics. It simply refers to a typical user base the is able to communicate and also share with one another. So on facebook users consist of a network. So execute owners that Blu-ray players, traders the buy and sell stock over the NASDAQ, or the sum complete of hardware and outlets that assistance the BS 1363 electric standard.

Key Takeaway

Network effects are among the most an effective strategic resources that can be created by technology-based innovation. Many category-dominating organizations and also technologies, including Microsoft, Apple, NASDAQ, eBay, Facebook, and Visa, owe your success come network effects. Network results are also behind the facility of many standards, consisting of Blu-ray, Wi-Fi, and also Bluetooth.

Questions and also Exercises

What are network effects? What space the various other names because that this concept? perform several commodities or solutions subject come network effects. What determinants do you believe helped each of these efforts achieve dominance? i beg your pardon firm execute you suspect has actually stronger end-user network effects: Google’s digital search tool or Microsoft’s home windows operating system? Why? Network results are often linked with technology, however tech no a prerequisite for the presence of network effects. Surname a product, service, or phenomenon the is not related to information technology that tho dominates as result of network effects.

Learning Objectives

recognize the three primary sources of worth for network effects. Recognize determinants that add to the staying power and also complementary services of a product or company subject to network effects. Understand how firms choose Microsoft and Apple each advantage from solid network effects.

The value acquired from network effects comes from three sources: exchange, staying power, and also complementary benefits.


Facebook because that one human isn’t much fun, and also the an initial guy in the civilization with a fax maker didn’t have actually much much more than a paperweight. However as each brand-new Facebook friend or fax user comes online, a network becomes an ext valuable since its users can potentially communicate with more people. These examples display the prestige of exchange in producing value. Every product or business subject to network results fosters some sort of exchange. For firms leveraging technology, this can include noþeles you can represent in the ones and zeros of digital storage, such together movies, music, money, video clip games, and computer programs. And just around any conventional that enables things to plug into one another, interconnect, or otherwise communicate will live or die based upon its capability to snare network effects.

Exercise: Graph It

Some world refer to network impacts by the name Metcalfe’s Law. It obtained this name when, towards the begin of the dot-com boom, Bob Metcalfe (the inventor of the Ethernet networking standard) wrote a obelisk in InfoWorld newspaper stating the the worth of a network amounts to its number of users squared. What perform you think that this formula? Graph the law with the vertical axis labeling “value” and the horizontal axis labeling “users.” perform you think the graph is precise representation of those happening in network effects? If so, why? If not, what do you think the graph really looks like?

Staying Power

Users don’t desire to purchase a product or sign up for a business that’s likely to walk away, and a variety of factors can halt the availability of an effort: a firm could bankrupt or fail to entice a crucial mass the user support, or a competitor may successfully invade that market and also draw away existing customers. Networks with higher numbers the users imply a stronger continuing to be powerThe permanent viability the a product or service.. The remaining power, or irreversible viability, of a product or service is particularly important for consumer of technology products. Consider that once someone buys a an individual computer and also makes a an option of Windows, Mac OS, or Linux, their investment over time usually greatly exceeds the early stage price paid because that the operating system. A user invests in learning just how to use a system, buying and installing software, entering choices or other data, producing files—all the which mean that if a product isn’t supported anymore, much of this investment is lost.

The concept of staying power (and the are afraid of being stranded in an unsupported product or service) is directly related to switching costsThe expense a customer incurs when relocating from one product to another. It deserve to involve actual money invested (e.g., buying a brand-new product) and investments in time, any type of data loss, and also so forth. (the cost a consumer incurs when relocating from one product come another) and also switching costs can strengthen the value of network impacts as a strategy asset. The greater the value of the user’s all at once investment, the an ext they’re most likely to consider the staying power of any type of offering before choosing to adopt it. Similarly, the much more a user has invested in a product, the less likely he or she is come leave.

Switching costs likewise go by various other names. You might hear the company press express to assets (particularly net sites) as being “sticky” or producing “friction.” Others may refer come the ide of “lock-in.” and the upstream Boston Consulting group is yes, really talking about a this firm switching expenses when it refers to exactly how well a firm can create customers who space “barnacles” (that are tightly anchored come the firm) and also not “butterflies” (that flutter far to rivals). The more friction available to avoid users from moving to a rival, the better the switching costs. And also in a competitive market where rivals with brand-new innovations display up all the time, that have the right to be a very an excellent thing!

“It is this switching expense that has offered our client the patience to stick v Windows with all ours mistakes, our buggy drivers, ours high TCO An financial measure that the full price of owning a product (typically computer hardware and/or software). TCO consists of direct prices such as acquisition price, add to indirect expenses such together training, support, and maintenance., our absence of a sexy vision at times, and also many other difficulties <…> customers constantly advice other desktop platforms, it would be so lot work to move over the they hope we just enhance Windows quite than pressure them to move. <…> In short, there is no this to exclude, franchise we would have been dead a long time ago.”

Comments from a Microsoft general Manager in a memo to bill GatesM. Parsons, “Microsoft: ‘We’d have Been Dead a long Time earlier without windows APIs,” ZDNet UK, April 22, 2004, http://news.zdnet.co.uk/software/0,1000000121 ,39152686,00.htm.

Complementary Benefits

Complementary benefitsProducts or solutions that include additional worth to the main product or organization that provides up a network. Room those commodities or solutions that add additional worth to the network. These commodities might include “how-to” books, software, and feature add-ons, even labor. You’ll find an ext books ~ above auctioning that focus on eBay, much more video cameras that upload to YouTube, and an ext accountants that know Excel 보다 those tareted at any kind of of their rivals. Why? publication authors, camera manufacturers, and also accountants invest their time and resources whereby they’re most likely to with the biggest market and get the biggest benefit. In auctions, video, and spreadsheet software, eBay, YouTube, and Excel each dwarf their respective competition.

Products and services the encourage others to sell complementary goods are sometimes dubbed platformsProducts and services that allow for the breakthrough and integration of software products and also other security goods. Windows, the iPhone, the Wii, and the standards that allow users to create Facebook apps room all platforms..T. Eisenmann, G. Parker, and M. Van Alstyne, “Strategies because that Two-Sided Markets,” Harvard company Review, October 2006. Permitting other that company to add to your platform deserve to be a excellent strategy since those that company will invest their time and money to enhance your offerings. Consider the billion-dollar hardware ecosystem the Apple has cultivated approximately the iPod and that the now prolonging to various other iOS products. There space over ninety brands offering some 280 models that iPod speak systems.S. Hansell, “The iPod Economy and C.E.S.,” New York Times, January 7, 2008. Thirty-four auto manufacturers currently trumpet their cars as being iPod-ready, countless with in-car docking stations and steering wheel music navigation systems. Every add-on boosts the value of selecting an iPod end a rival prefer the Microsoft Zune. And now v the application Store for the iPhone, iPod touch, and also iPad, apple is doing the very same thing with software application add-ons. Software-based ecosystems can grow very quickly. In much less than a year after its introduction, the iTunes application Store boasted end fifty thousands applications, jointly downloaded end one billion times. Less than 2 years later, downloaded apps topped ten billion.

These three value-adding sources—exchange, staying power, and complementary benefits—often work together to reinforce one one more in a method that provides the network result even stronger. As soon as users exchanging info attract much more users, lock can likewise attract firms providing complementary products. When developers of complementary products invest time composing software—and customers install, learn, and customize these products—switching expenses are developed that improve the staying power that a offered network. From a strategist’s perspective this deserve to be an excellent news for leading firms in industries where network impacts exist. The bigger your network, the more complicated it becomes because that rivals to challenge your leadership position.

Key Takeaways

Products and also services topic to network impacts get their worth from exchange, viewed staying power, and also complementary products and also services. Tech firms and services that gain the lead in these categories often dominate all rivals. Many firms effort to improve their network results by creating a platform because that the development of third-party products and also services that improve the major offering.

Questions and Exercises

What room the determinants that add to the value produced by network effects? Why is continuing to be power particularly important come many modern technology products and also services? Think around the kinds of technology products the you very own that room subject come network effects. What sorts of exchange execute these assets leverage (e.g., information, money, software, or other media)? Think about the type of an innovation projects girlfriend own. What kinds of switching prices are innate in every of these? are these strong switching expenses or weak convert costs? What would it take because that you come leave among these services and use a rival? How could a competitor shot to lessen these switching expenses to guide you to adopt their product? Which other terms are occasionally used to define the phenomenon of convert costs? Think about the kinds of modern technology products the you own that space subject come network effects. What sorts of complementary benefits are accessible for this products? are complementary benefits solid or weak (meaning, carry out people choose the product primarily based upon these benefits, or because that some various other reason)? recognize firms that you believe have developed a solid platform. Deserve to you think of that company that have actually tried to build a platform, but have been less successful? Why execute you mean they have actually struggled?

Learning Objectives

Recognize and distinguish in between one-sided and also two-sided markets. Understand same-side and also cross-side exchange benefits.

Understanding Network Structure

To understand the an essential sources of network value, it’s essential to identify the framework of the network. Part networks derive many of their worth from a solitary class that users. An instance of this kind of network is prompt messaging (IM). When there can be some add-ons for the most famous IM tools, they don’t affect most users’ an option of an ns system. You pretty much choose one IM device over another based on how countless of your contacts you deserve to reach. Economic experts would call IM a one-sided marketA industry that derives many of its value from a solitary class of customers (e.g., prompt messaging). (a sector that derives many of its worth from a solitary class the users), and the network effects obtained from IM users attracting an ext IM customers as being same-side exchange benefitsBenefits obtained by interaction among members that a solitary class that participant (e.g., the exchange value when enhancing numbers of im users obtain the capability to article each other). (benefits acquired by interaction amongst members of a solitary class the participant).

But some markets are comprised of two distinctive categories that network participant. Consider video games. Civilization buy a video clip game console largely based upon the variety of really great games accessible for the system. Software application developers create games based upon their ability to with the greatest number of paying customers, so they’re most most likely to create for the most popular consoles first. Economists would speak to this kind of network a two-sided marketNetwork markets comprised of two distinct categories the participant, both the which that are needed to deliver value because that the network to work (e.g., video game console owners and developers of video clip games). (network markets comprised of two unique categories that participant, both the which that are needed to provide value for the network come work). When boost in the number of users top top one next of the industry (console owners, for example) create a rise in the other side (software developers), that’s dubbed a cross-side exchange benefitWhen boost in the variety of users top top one side of the industry (console owners, because that example) creates a increase in the other side (software developers)..

The optimistic Feedback Loop of Network Effects

IM is thought about a one-sided market (or one-sided network), where the value-creating, positive-feedback loop of network effects comes mostly from same-side services from a single group (IM members who attract other ns members who desire to connect with them). Discount deal sites like Groupon, however, are considered to be two-sided markets, where far-reaching benefits come native two unique classes of individuals that add value by attracting every other. In Groupon’s case, the more people that subscribe to obtain the firm’s everyday deal messages, the stronger the magnet that attracts potential advertisers that offer an ext deals, who consequently attract more subscribers (and therefore on). This dynamic has developed freak-show development for the Chicago-based firm. Much less than two years after Groupon to be founded, Forbes declared the firm to it is in the fastest growing agency in history.C. Steiner, “Meet the fastest Growing agency in History,” Forbes, respectable 8, 2010. While the site has actually literally numerous competitors, few of the upstarts space formidable. The highly rewarding Groupon finished 2010 v ten times the traffic of its nearest competitor.J. O’Dell, “By Traffic, Groupon Is Ten times Bigger than Its Nearest Competitor,” Mashable, December 2, 2010. Groupon isn’t out of the clear yet. Firms like Facebook and also Google—each with an established advertisement sales force and already strong relationships with advertisers—are launching their own day-to-day deal efforts, gunning for Groupon’s growth. Yet as for the me-too wannabe upstarts—they’ve acquired nothing.

It’s also possible that a network may have actually both same-side and also cross-side benefits, too. Xbox 360 benefits from cross-side benefits in that much more users of the console attract an ext developers writing an ext software titles and vice versa. However, the Xbox Live network that permits users to play against each other has actually same-side benefits. If your buddies usage Xbox Live and you desire to play versus them, you’re an ext likely come buy one Xbox.

Key Takeaways

In one-sided markets, users obtain benefits from connecting with a similar category of individuals (think instant messaging, where everyone deserve to send and also receive message to one another). In two-sided markets, users gain benefits from connecting with a separate, complementary class of users (e.g., in Groupon’s daily-deal business, deal subscribers room attracted to the platform because there are an ext vendors giving deals, while sellers are attractive to Groupon due to the fact that it has actually the most customers to receive the deals).

Questions and Exercises

What is the difference between same-side exchange benefits and cross-side exchange benefits? What is the difference in between a one-sided market and a two-sided market? Give examples of one-sided and two-sided markets. Identify examples of two-sided markets where both sides pay because that a product or service. Identify instances where only one next pays. What factors determine who need to pay? go paying have implications because that the establishment and also growth of a network effect? What can a firm execute to encourage early on network growth? The Apple iphone Developer Program gives developers access to the app Store wherein they deserve to distribute their complimentary or commercial applications to numerous iPhone and iPod touch customers. Would the iPhone market be taken into consideration a one or two-sided market?

Learning Objectives

Understand just how competition in sectors where network results are existing differ native competition in timeless markets. Know the reasons why it is so difficult for late-moving, not compatible rivals to complete in markets where a dominant, proprietary traditional is present.

When network results play a starring role, compete in an industry deserve to be fundamentally various than in conventional, nonnetwork industries.

First, network industries experience early, fierce competition. The positive-feedback loop innate in network effects—where the best networks come to be even bigger—causes this. Firms are an extremely aggressive in the at an early stage stages of these industries since once a leader i do not care clear, bandwagons form, and new adopters begin to overwhelmingly favor the top product over rivals, tipping the industry in donate of one dominant firm or standard. This tipping have the right to be remarkably swift. Once the majority of significant studios and retailers began to earlier Blu-ray end HD DVD, the latter initiative folded within weeks.

These markets are additionally often winner-take-all or winner-take-most, exhibiting monopolistic tendencies where one firm dominates all rivals. Look at at every one of the examples provided so far—in virtually every instance the leading player has a market share fine ahead of every competitors. When, during the U.S. Microsoft antitrust trial, Judge cutting board Penfield Jackson claimed Microsoft to it is in a monopolyA industry where over there are numerous buyers yet only one dominant seller. (a sector where there are countless buyers yet only one leading seller), the collective response should have been “of course.” Why? The natural state of a market where network impacts are current (and this includes operating systems and also Office software) is for there to be one major player. Due to the fact that bigger networks offer much more value, they have the right to charge client more. Firms through a commanding network effects advantage may additionally enjoy considerable bargaining strength over partners. Because that example, Apple, which controls end 75 percent that digital music sales, because that years had the ability to dictate tune pricing, despite the tremendous protests the the record labels.B. Barnes, “NBC will certainly Not Renew iTunes Contract,” New York Times, respectable 31, 2007. In fact, Apple’s stranglehold was so solid that the leveraged bargaining power even though the “Big Four” document labels (Universal, Sony, EMI, and also Warner) were themselves one oligopolyA market overcame by a small number of powerful sellers. (a market conquered by a small variety of powerful sellers) that together carry out over 85 percent that music marketed in the united States.

Finally, it’s necessary to keep in mind that the finest product or service doesn’t constantly win. Playstations 2 conquered the original Xbox in a prior generation’s video game console war, regardless of the reality that nearly every review asserted the Xbox to be hands-down a an ext technically remarkable machine. Why were users willing to pick an worse product (PS2) end a premium one (Xbox)? The power of network effects! PS2 had much more users, i m sorry attracted more developers offering more games.

Figure 6.1


Battling a leader with network effects is tough.Adapted from J. Gallaugher and also Y. Wang, “Linux vs. Home windows in the middle Kingdom: A strategy Valuation design for communication Competition” (paper, Proceedings the the 2008 meeting of ameri Conference on details Systems, Toronto, CA, respectable 2008), expanding M. Schilling, “Technological Leapfrogging: Lessons native the U.S. Video Game Console Industry,” California administration Review, feather 2003.

This last keep in mind is a critical point to any newcomer wishing to strike an created rival. Winning customers far from a leading player in a network market isn’t as easy as offering a product or service that is better. Any product that is incompatible v the dominant network needs to exceed the value of the technical functions of the top player, add to (since the newcomer likely starts without any type of users or third-party product complements) the worth of the incumbent’s exchange, switching cost, and also complementary product advantage (see number 6.1). And also the incumbent need to not have the ability to easily copy any type of of the newcomer’s valuable brand-new innovations; otherwise the leading firm will certainly quickly enhance any beneficial improvements do by rivals. Together such, technical leapfroggingCompeting by supplying a new technology the is so premium to existing offerings that the value overcomes the total resistance that older technologies might enjoy via exchange, switching cost, and complementary benefits., or contending by providing a superior generation the technology, can be yes, really tough.M. Schilling, “Technological Leapfrogging: Lessons indigenous the U.S. Video clip Game Console Industry,” California management Review, spring 2003.

Is This good for Innovation?

Critics the firms the leverage proprietary requirements for market prominence often complain the network effects are bad for innovation. However this declare isn’t totally true. When network effects limit vain against the leading standard, innovation within a standard may actually blossom. Consider Windows. Microsoft has a huge advantage in the desktop computer operating device market, so couple of rivals shot to complete with it. Apple’s Mac OS and the open resource Linux operating device are the firm’s just credible rivals, and both have actually tiny industry shares. But the supremacy of windows is a magnet for developers to innovate in ~ the standard. Programmers through novel ideas are willing to do the investment in discovering to write software program for Windows because they’re sure that a windows version can be provided by the overwhelming majority of computer system users.

By contrast, look in ~ the mess we initially had in the mobile phone market. Through so numerous different handsets comprise differing computing hardware, offering different screen sizes, running various software, having actually different crucial layouts, and working on various carrier networks, writing a video game that’s obtainable by the majority of customers is virtually impossible. Glu Mobile, a machine of virtual games, launched fifty-six reengineered build of monopoly to accomplish the diverse requirements of just one telecom carrier.N. Hutheesing, “Answer your Phone, a videogame Is Calling,” Forbes, august 8, 2006. Together a result, businessman with good software principles for the mobile sector were deterred since writing, marketing, and maintaining many product version is both costly and also risky. The wasn’t until Apple’s iphone arrived, providing developers both a vast market and a consistent set of advance standards, the third-party software advance for mobile phones really took off.

Key Takeaways

Unseating a firm that dominates v network effects can be extremely difficult, specifically if the newcomer is not compatible through the established leader. Freshman will uncover their an innovation will need to be so good that it have to leapfrog not only the worth of the created firm’s tech, but likewise the regarded stability of the dominant firm, the exchange benefits listed by the existing user base, and also the services from any kind of product complements. Because that evidence, simply look in ~ how daunting it’s been because that rivals come unseat the supremacy of Windows. Due to the fact that of this, network effects could limit the number of rivals that an obstacle a dominant firm. But the facility of a dominant standard may actually encourage invention within the standard, because firms producing complements for the leader have confidence the leader will have actually staying strength in the market.

Questions and Exercises

how is competition in markets where network effects are current different from competition in traditional markets? What space the reasons it is so challenging for late-moving, incompatible rivals to compete in industries where a dominant, proprietary standard is present? What is technological leapfrogging and why is the so daunting to accomplish? Does it make sense to shot to stop monopolies in sectors where network impacts exist? are network effects an excellent or poor for innovation? Explain. What is the relationship in between network effects and the bargaining power of entrants in a network impacts “ecosystem”? point out examples whereby the best an innovation did not overcome a network effects-driven market.

Learning Objectives

Plot strategies for completing in sectors where network results are present, both from the perspective of the incumbent firm and also the new market entrant. Give examples of just how firms have actually leveraged these methods to contend effectively.

Why do you treatment whether networks room one-sided, two-sided, or some sort of hybrid? Well, as soon as crafting your setup for industry dominance, it’s an important to recognize if network effects exist, how strong they can be, whereby they come from, and also how they could be harnessed to your benefit. Here’s a fast rundown of the tools available when completing in the existence of network effects.

Strategies for completing in sectors with Network effects (Examples in Parentheses)

Move early (Yahoo! Auctions in Japan) Subsidize product adoption (PayPal) Leverage viral promo (Skype; on facebook feeds) broaden by redefining the industry to lug in brand-new categories of individuals (Nintendo Wii) or v convergence (iPhone). Kind alliances and also partnerships (NYCE vs. Citibank) establish distribution networks (Java with Netscape; Microsoft bundling Media Player with Windows) seed the industry with complements (Blu-ray; Nintendo) Encourage the breakthrough of safety goods—this can incorporate offering resources, subsidies, lessened fees, sector research, breakthrough kits, venture capital (Facebook fbFund). Maintain backward compatibility (Apple’s Mac OS X Rosetta translation software for PowerPC come Intel) because that rivals, be compatible with larger networks (Apple’s relocate to Intel; Live search Maps) because that incumbents, continuous innovate to create a relocating target and block rival efforts to access your network (Apple’s efforts to block access to its very own systems) For large firms with well-known followers, do preannouncements (Microsoft)

Move Early

In the people of network effects, this is a biggie. Being an initial allows her firm to start the network impacts snowball roll in your direction. In Japan, global auction leader eBay proved up just five months after ~ Yahoo! released its Japanese auction service. However eBay was never ever able to mountain a credible threat and ended increase pulling out of the market. Gift just five months late expense eBay billions in lost sales, and the firm at some point retreated, acknowledging it could never unseat Yahoo!’s network effects lead.

Another vital lesson indigenous the lose of eBay Japan? Exchange relies on the capability to communicate! EBay’s vast network results in the joined States and also elsewhere didn’t analyze to Japan since most Japanese no comfortable v English, and most English speakers don’t understand Japanese. The language obstacle made Japan a “greenfield” industry with no dominant player, and also Yahoo!’s early on move listed the catalyst for victory.

Timing is often an essential in the video game console wars, too. Sony’s playstation 2 appreciated an eighteen-month lead over the technically exceptional Xbox (as well as Nintendo’s GameCube). That time lead aided to produce what because that years was the single most profitable department at Sony. By contrast, the technically exceptional PS3 verified up month after Xbox 360 and at around the same time together the Nintendo Wii, and has struggled in its beforehand years, racking increase multibillion-dollar losses for Sony.C. Null, “Sony’s casualty on PS3: $3 Billion and also Counting,” Yahoo! this particular day in Tech, June 27, 2008, http://tech.yahoo.com/blogs/null/96355.

What If Microsoft Threw a Party and also No One showed Up?

Microsoft introduced the Zune media player with attributes that should be subject to network effects—the capacity to re-publishing photos and also music by wirelessly “squirting” contents to other Zune users. The certain even advocated Zune through the tagline “Welcome to the Social.” trouble was the Zune Social was a party no one wanted to attend. The late-arriving Zune garnered a industry share of just 3 percent, and users remained hard pressed to discover buddies to leverage this neat social features.R. Walker, “AntiPod,” New York Times, august 8, 2008. A cool idea does not make a network result happen.

Subsidize Adoption

Starting a network result can be tough—there’s tiny incentive to join a network if there’s nobody in the device to connect with. In one admittedly risky strategy, firms might offer to subsidize initial fostering in wishes that network effects might kick in soon after. Subsidies come adopters might include a price reduction, rebate, or various other giveaways. PayPal, a company that enables users to pay one another using credit cards, provided users a usually rebate as a sign-up motivation to encourage adoption of its new effort (in one early promotion, customers got ago fifteen dollars once spending their an initial thirty dollars). This short subsidy payment to early adopters paid off handsomely. EBay later on tried to enter the sector with a rival effort, yet as a late mover its initiative was never able to get rid of PayPal’s momentum. PayPal was at some point purchased by eBay for $1.5 billion, and the business unit is now taken into consideration one of eBay’s an essential drivers of growth and profit.

Figure 6.2 Gilt Groupe iPad App


Gilt’s ten-dollar iPad subsidy and also instant membership offer aided fuel fostering of the iPad app. Mobile apps currently account because that 15 percent the the luxury fashion site’s sales.

Gilt Groupe, a high-end fashion flash transaction site, offered subsidies come increase adoption of the that company mobile app “Gilt top top the Go”—fueling the expansion of a new and crucial distribution channel. Gilt knew that getting its app into the purses and pockets of more of its individuals would increase the chance that a customer would certainly view much more deals and act ~ above them. To encourage mobile owners to download the Gilt app, the company offered instant membership (as protest to its regular invitation-only model) and a ten-dollar credit transaction to the first ten thousand brand-new subscribers. Awareness that Gilt top top the Go spread virally, and apps prospered in a flash, audit for 15 percent the the firm’s revenue within months.B. Gutman, “Gilt Groupe expose Its Success with Mobile and Social,” Forbes, might 17, 2011. Some of the ideal approaches to contending in network markets will at the same time leverage several of the methods we’re outlining here, and also in the case of Gilt, the subsidy helped produce viral promotion that in turn helped develop a brand-new distribution channel.

When Even totally free Isn’t an excellent Enough

Subsidizing adoption after a competitor has achieved dominance have the right to be one uphill battle, and sometimes even offering a organization for totally free isn’t enough to combat the leading firm. Once Yahoo! presented a U.S. Auction business to compete with eBay, it originally didn’t fee sellers at every (sellers typically pay eBay a tiny percentage of every completed auction). The hope to be that through the removed of seller fees, enough sellers would certainly jump from eBay come Yahoo! helping the late-mover record up in the network effect game.

But eBay sellers to be reluctant to leave for two reasons. First, there weren’t sufficient buyers top top Yahoo! to complement the high bids lock earned top top much-larger eBay. Part savvy sellers played an arbitrage video game where you will do it buy item on Yahoo!’s auction business at lower prices and resell castle on eBay, where more users bid price higher.

Second, any established seller leave eBay would give up their an useful “seller ratings,” and would require to construct their Yahoo! call from scratch. Seller ratings represent a crucial switching cost, as many users see a high rating as a an approach for to reduce the risk of acquiring scammed or receiving lower-quality goods.

Auctions work finest for differentiated goods. When Amazon has had actually some success in peeling far eBay sellers who carry out commodity products (a real risk as eBay significantly relies on fixed-price sales), eBay’s dominant share of the virtual auction sector still towers over every rivals.B. Stone, “Amid the Gloom, one E-commerce War,” New York Times, October 12, 2008. When there’s no magic in the servers supplied to develop eBay, the at an early stage use of modern technology allowed the firm to create both network effects and also switching costs—a double strategic benefit that has given it a hammerlock on auctions even as others have actually attempted to mimic that service and undercut that is pricing model.

Leverage viral Promotion

Since all products and also services foster some type of exchange, that often feasible to leverage a firm’s client to encourage the product or service. Net calling company Skype (now owned by Microsoft) has actually over 6 hundred million registered customers yet has actually spent almost nothing ~ above advertising. Many Skype customers were recruited by rather who common the native on free and low-cost net calls. And also rise of society media has made viral promo a device that numerous firms deserve to exploit. Facebook and also Twitter act together a catalyst for friends to share deals, spread a good word, sign up because that services, and also load applications.

Expand by Redefining the Market

If a large market attracts much more users (and in two-sided markets, an ext complements), why no redefine the room to lug in more users? Nintendo did this once launching the Wii. While Sony and Microsoft focused on the graphics and raw processing power favored by hard-core male gamers, Nintendo chose to construct a machine to appeal to families, women, and age teams that generally shunned alien shoot-’em ups. Through going after ~ a bigger, redefined market, Nintendo had the ability to rack increase sales that gone beyond the Xbox 360, also though it followed the mechanism by twelve months.M. Sanchanta, “Nintendo’s Wii bring away Console Lead,” Financial Times, September 12, 2007.

Seeking the Blue Ocean? far better Think Strategically

Reggie Fils-Aimé, the president of Nintendo the America, describes the Wii Strategy together a Blue ocean effort.R. Fils-Aimé (presentation and discussion, Carroll college of Management, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, April 6, 2009). The principle of blue ocean strategyAn technique where firms look for to create and also compete in uncontested “blue ocean” sector spaces, fairly than contending in spaces and also ways that have actually attracted many, similar rivals. Was popularized by european Institute the Business management (INSEAD) professors W. Chan Kim and also Renée Mauborgne (authors of a publication with the exact same title).W. C. Kim and also R. Mauborgne, Blue ocean Strategy: just how to create Uncontested Market space and do Competition Irrelevant (Cambridge, MA: Harvard organization Press, 2005). Check out http://www.blueoceanstrategy.com. The idea—instead of competing in blood-red waters whereby the sharks of very competitive this firm vie for every accessible market scrap, firms should seek the blue waters of uncontested, new market spaces.

For Nintendo, the granny gamers, moms, and also partygoers that flocked come the Wii represented an undiscovered feast in the Blue Ocean. Talk about new markets! consider that the best-selling video clip game in ~ the begin of 2009 was Wii Fit—a genre-busting title the comes with a scale so you have the right to weigh you yourself each time girlfriend play. It is a much cry from cool Theft Auto IV, the location ranking fifth in 2008 sales, and also trailing 4 Wii-only exclusives.

Blue ocean strategy often works ideal when combined with strategic positioning explained in chapter 2 \"Strategy and also Technology: Concepts and Frameworks for knowledge What the end Winners from Losers\". If very early mover into a blue ocean can use this command to produce defensible assets because that sustainable advantage, late moving rivals may find markets unresponsive to their presence. That course, if your firm’s case in the blue ocean is based on easily imitated resources (like modern technology features), then holding off rivals will be tougher. For vacation season 2010, Microsoft confirmed up with its very own motion-gaming controller, the Kinect video camera system. Kinect to be such a hit v generation Wii the it ended up being the fastest-selling consumer electronics product in history, pumping up Xbox 360 console sales and also goosing Microsoft’s entertainment division from zero to a exchange rate dollars in profits in simply two years.S. Kessler, “Microsoft Kinect Sales peak 10 Million, Set new Guinness world Record,” Mashable, march 9, 2011; D. Goldman, “Microsoft profit Soars 31% on strong Office and Kinect Sales,” CNNMoney, April 28, 2011.

Market growth sometimes place rivals who previously did not complete on a collision course as industries undergo convergenceWhen two or more markets, once taken into consideration distinctly separate, start to sell features and also capabilities. Together an example: the sectors for cell phone phones and also media players are converging. (when two or an ext markets, once thought about distinctly separate, begin to offer similar features and also capabilities). Think about the industry for portable electronic devices. Separate product categories for media players, cameras, gaming devices, phones, and an international positioning equipment (GPS) space all starting to merge. Fairly than cede its dominance as a media player, apple leveraged a strategy well-known as envelopmentWhen one sector attempts to conquer a brand-new market through making the a subset, component, or attribute of its major offering., wherein a firm seeks to make an existing industry a subset of its product offering. Apple deftly morphed the iPod into the iPhone, a an equipment that captures every one of these product categories in one device. But the firm go further; the iphone is Wi-Fi capable, provides browsing, e-mail, and also an application platform based upon a scaled-down variation of the very same OS X operating mechanism used in Macintosh computers. Together a “Pocket Mac,” the very nice of the an equipment broadened beyond just the phone call or music player markets, and within two quarters that launch, iPhone become the second-leading smartphone in north America—outpacing Palm, Microsoft, Motorola and every other rival, other than RIM’s BlackBerry.R. Kim, “iPhone No. 2 Smartphone platform in north America,” The technology Chronicles—The mountain Francisco Chronicle, December 17, 2007.

Alliances and also Partnerships

Firms can additionally use tandem to prosper market share for a network. Occasionally these efforts lug rivals with each other to take the end a leader. In a classic example, think about ATM networks. Citibank was the first major financial institution in new York City to offer a large ATM network. But the Citi network was originally proprietary, definition customers of other financial institutions couldn’t take advantage of Citi ATMs. Citi’s development was insanity popular and also being a pioneer in rolling the end cash machines assisted the firm grow deposits fourfold in just a couple of years. Rivals responded through a partnership. Instead of every rival financial institution offering an additional incompatible network destined to trail Citi’s lead, competing banks agreed to share their ATM operations through NYCE (New York Cash Exchange). When Citi’s network was originally the biggest, after ~ the NYCE start a Chase financial institution customer might use ATMs in ~ a organize of other banks that covered a geography much greater than Citi readily available alone. Network results in ATMs change to the rival bank alliance, Citi eventually joined NYCE and also today, virtually every ATM in the United states carries a NYCE sticker.

Share or continue to be Proprietary?

Defensive moves prefer the ones above are frequently meant to diffuse the hazard of a proprietary rival. Sometimes firms decide from the begin to band with each other to create a new, more open standard, establish that collective support is an ext likely to jumpstart a network than if one certain tried come act with a closed, proprietary offering. Instances of this incorporate the coalitions that firms the have operated together to development standards favor Bluetooth and Wi-Fi. When no single member for sure gains a straight profit indigenous the revenue of gadgets using these standards, the standard’s backers benefit when the industry for devices expands as commodities become more useful because they are an ext interoperable.

Leverage distribution Channels

Firms can additionally think around novel ways to distribution a product or organization to consumers. Sun confronted a challenge when launching the Java programming language—no computer systems could run it. In order because that Java come work, computer systems need a tiny interpreter program called the Java Virtual machine (JVM). Most users no willing come download the JVM if there to be no applications composed in Java, and also no developers were ready to create in Java if no one might run their code. Sun broke the logjam once it bundled the JVM through Netscape’s browser. When countless users download Netscape, Sun’s software program snuck in, virtually instantly creating a platform of millions for would-be Java developers. Today, even though Netscape has actually failed, Sun’s Java remains one of the world most famous programming languages. Indeed, Java to be cited as one of the main reasons for Oracle’s 2009 salvation of Sun, with Oracle’s CEO speak the language represented “the solitary most crucial software asset we have ever before acquired.”A. Ricadela, “Oracle’s bold Java Plans,” BusinessWeek, June 2, 2009.

And when you nothing have distribution channels, develop them. That’s what to apologize did as soon as it introduced the Apple sleeve stores a little over a decade ago. At the time of launch, practically every pundit intended the effort to fail. But it transforms out, the attractive, high-service storefronts were the perfect communication to promote the uniqueness of apple products. Apple’s 300+ stores worldwide now lug in about ten exchange rate dollars in revenue and also are among the world’s many successful sleeve outlets top top a sales-per-square-foot basis.C. Jade, “The Apple save at 10: Past, Present, and also Future,” GigaOM, might 19, 2011; B. Molina, “Apple Store most Photographed ar in new York City,” USA Today, June 1, 2011.

Figure 6.3 Apple’s retail Stores


Most pundits expected Apple retail to fail. Instead the stores listed a wildly successful channel to reach customers, explain products, and make sales. The Apple save on fifth Avenue in Manhattan was recently called the most photographed landmark in new York City.

As discussed in chapter 2 \"Strategy and also Technology: Concepts and also Frameworks for expertise What the end Winners from Losers\", Microsoft is in a an especially strong place to leverage this approach. The firm frequently bundles its brand-new products right into its operating systems, Office suite, Internet explorer browser, and also other offerings. The firm supplied this tactic to transform as soon as market-leader genuine Networks into an also-ran in streaming audio. In ~ a few years the bundling windows Media Player (WMP) v its various other products, WMP ordered the bulk of the market, when Real’s share had actually fallen to below 10 percent.BusinessWire, “Media Player layout Share because that 2006 Confirms home windows Media Remains dominant with a 50.8% share of video Streams Served, complied with by Flash at 21.9%—‘CDN Growth and Market share Shifts: 2002–2006,’” December 18, 2006; and T. Eisenmann, G. Parker, and M. Van Alstyne, “Strategies because that Two-Sided Markets,” Harvard company Review, October 2006.

Caution is advised, however. Regional antitrust authorities may consider product bundling by leading firms to it is in anticompetitive. European regulators have compelled Microsoft come unbundle windows Media Player native its operation system and also to administer a selection of browsers alongside net Explorer.

Antitrust: real Versus Microsoft

From October 2001 come March 2003, Microsoft’s bundling of home windows Media Player in execution of that is operating mechanism ensured that the software application came preinstalled top top nearly all of the estimated 207 million new PCs shipped during that period. By contrast, genuine Networks’ digital media player was preinstalled on much less than 2 percent that PCs. But here’s the kicker that acquired to regulators (and Real): Microsoft’s conventional contract with computer manufacturers “prevented lock not only from removing the home windows Media Player, however even providing a desktop computer icon for genuine Networks.”E. Hansen and also D. Becker, “Real access time Microsoft v $1 billion Antitrust Suit,” CNET, December 18, 2003, http://news.cnet.com/Real-hits-Microsoft-with-1-billion -antitrust-suit/2100-1025_3-5129316.html; and T. Eisenmann, G. Parker, and also M. Van Alstyne, “Strategies because that Two-Sided Markets,” Harvard service Review, October 2006. When network effects produce monopolies, federal governments may balk at permitting a firm to leverage its advantages in methods that space designed to deliberately store rivals from the market.

Seed the Market

When Sony introduced the PS3, that subsidized every console by selling at a price estimated at 3 hundred dollars listed below unit cost.C. Null, “Sony’s accident on PS3: $3 Billion and also Counting,” Yahoo! now in Tech, June 27, 2008, http://tech.yahoo.com/blogs/null/96355. Subsidizing consoles is a common practice in the video clip game industry—game player manufacturers normally make many of your money with royalties paid by game developers. However Sony’s subsidy had an additional benefit because that the firm—it assisted sneak a Blu-ray player right into every residence buying a PS3 (Sony was backing the Blu-ray conventional over the competitor HD DVD effort). PS3 has actually struggled with fierce competition, yet initially seeding the market with low-cost Blu-ray football player at a time as soon as that hardware marketed at a really high price gave ultimate winner Blu-ray part extra momentum. Since Sony is additionally a movie studio and manufacturer of DVD players and also other consumer electronics, it had a particularly strong set of assets to leverage come encourage the fostering of Blu-ray over rival HD DVD.

Giving away products for half of a two-sided industry is an extreme example that this type of behavior, yet it’s frequently used. In two-sided markets, you fee the one that will pay. Adobe offers away the Acrobat reader to construct a market for the sale of software that creates Acrobat files. Firms with Yellow web page directories provide away countless duplicates of their products, ceded straight to her home, in order to produce a market for marketing advertising. And also Google does much the exact same by providing free, ad-supported search.

Encourage the development of complementary Goods

There are several ways to motivate others to develop complementary items for your network. These efforts often show off some kind of developer subsidy or other cost-free or discounted service. A firm might charge reduced royalties or market a period of royalty-free licensing. The can likewise offer free software advance kits (SDKs), cultivate programs, co-marketing dollars, or also start-up resources to potential suppliers. Microsoft and also Apple both allow developers to sell their commodities online v Xbox LIVE Marketplace and also iTunes, respectively. This channel lowers developer prices by eliminating costs linked with selling physical perform in brick-and-mortar stores and also can carry out a free way come reach millions of potential consumers without far-ranging promotional spending.

Venture funds can likewise prompt firms to produce complementary goods. Facebook announced it would certainly spur breakthrough for the website in part by administering the fbFund, which at first pledged $10 million in start-up resources (in allotments of up to $250,000 each) to firms composing applications for its platform.

Leverage backward Compatibility

Those that company that manage a typical would additionally be way to for sure that new products have actually backward compatibilityThe ability to take benefit of security products occurred for a former generation the technology. With previously offerings. If not, they reenter a sector at installed-base zero and give up a significant source that advantage—the convert costs collected by prior customers. For example, once Nintendo introduced its 16-bit super Nintendo system, it was incompatible through the firm’s highly successful front generation 8-bit model. Rival Sega, i m sorry had gotten in the 16-bit industry two years prior to Nintendo, had actually already gathered a big library of 16-bit games for the system. Nintendo entered with only its debut titles, and no capacity to play games owned by client of its previous system, so there was tiny incentive because that existing Nintendo pan to stick with the firm.M. Schilling, “Technological Leapfrogging: Lessons indigenous the U.S. Video Game Console Industry,” California administration Review, spring 2003.

Backward compatibility was the centerpiece that Apple’s strategy to revitalize the Macintosh v its relocate to the Intel microprocessor. Intel chips aren’t compatible with the instruction collection used by the PowerPC processor supplied in earlier Mac models. Think of this as two entirely different languages—Intel speaks French, PowerPC speak Urdu. To lull the transition, Apple contained a complimentary software-based adaptorA product that enables a firm come tap right into the security products, data, or user base of another product or service., referred to as Rosetta, that automatically emulated the use of the old chip ~ above all new Macs (a sort of Urdu to French translator). By act so, all brand-new Intel Macs could use the basic of existing software written because that the old chip; owner of PowerPC Macs were able to upgrade while preserving their investment in old software; and software firms could still offer older program while lock rewrote applications for new Intel-based Macs.

Even an ext significant, since Intel is the very same standard provided by Windows, Apple arisen a cost-free software adaptor referred to as Boot Camp that permitted Windows come be installed on Macs. Boot Camp (and comparable solutions by various other vendors) substantially lowered the price for Windows users to move to Macs. Within 2 years of do the switch, Mac sales skyrocketed to document levels. Apple now boasts a commanding lead in notebook sales come the education and learning market,P. Seitz, “An Apple for Teacher, Students: Mac maker Surges in Education,” Investor’s business Daily, august 8, 2008. And also a survey by Yankee Group discovered that 87 percent of enterprise were making use of at least some Macintosh computers, increase from 48 percent at the finish of the PowerPC era 2 years earlier.P. Burrows, “The Mac in the Gray Flannel Suit,” BusinessWeek, may 1, 2008.

Rivals: be Compatible through the leading Network

Companies will want to take into consideration making brand-new products compatible through the leading standard. Microsoft’s Live Maps and Virtual planet 3D arrived so late to the net mapping game. Individuals had currently put in numerous hours structure resources that meshed with Google Maps and Google Earth. But by adopting the same keyhole markup language (KML) standard used by Google, Microsoft could, as TechCrunch placed it, “drink native Google’s milkshake.” any work done by customers for Google in KML might be supplied by Microsoft. Voilà, an prompt base that add-on content!

Incumbents: Close off Rival accessibility and continually Innovate

Oftentimes that company that regulate dominant networks will certainly make compatibility daunting for rivals who shot to attach with their systems. For example, while countless firms offer video conferencing and Internet calling, the clear leader is Skype, a product the for years had actually been closed to unauthorized chat application clients.

Firms that constantly innovate do it particularly difficult for rivals to become compatible. Again, we deserve to look come Apple as an instance of these ideas in action. When Macs run Windows, Windows computer systems can’t operation Mac programs. Apple has actually embedded an essential software in Mac hardware, do it challenging for rivals to compose a software application emulator like Boot Camp that would certainly let Windows computers drink native the Mac milkshake. And if any kind of firm it s okay close come cloning Mac hardware, apple sues. The firm likewise modifies software on other commodities like the iPhone and iTunes every time wily hackers tap right into closed aspects of that is systems. And also Apple has regularly moved to block third-party hardware, such as Palm’s cell phone phones, native plugging into iTunes. Also if firms create adaptors that emulate a standard, a firm that constantly innovates creates a relocating target that’s challenging for rather to keep up with.

Apple has been far an ext aggressive than Microsoft in introducing brand-new versions that its software. Because the firm never ever stays still, would-be cloners never ever get enough time to produce a trusted emulator the runs the recent Apple software.

Large, renowned Followers: Preannouncements

Large firms that find brand-new markets attractive however don’t yet have commodities ready because that delivery could preannounce initiatives in order to cause potential adaptors to sit on the fence, delaying a purchasing decision until the brand-new effort rolfes out. Preannouncements only occupational if a firm is large enough come pose a credible threat to present market participants. Microsoft, for example, can reason potential customers to host off on choosing a rival because users see that the firm has actually the sources to beat most players (suggesting continuing to be power). Statements indigenous start-ups, however, regularly lack credibility to hold-up user purchases. The tech market acronym for the influence firms try to send on sectors through preannouncements is FUD because that fear, uncertainty, and also doubt.

The Osborne Effect

Preannouncers, beware. Announce an initiative too early and a certain may autumn victim to what’s known as “The Osborne EffectWhen a certain preannounces a forthcoming product or service and also experiences a sharp and detrimental autumn in sales of existing offerings as individuals wait because that the new item..” that been argued that portable computer system manufacturer Osborne computer system announced new models also early. Customers opted to wait because that the brand-new models, therefore sales that the firm’s present offerings plummeted. If evidence argues that Osborne’s decrease had an ext to do with rivals offering better products, the an unfavorable impact of preannouncements has actually hurt a host of various other firms.A. Orlowski, “Taking Osborne the end of the Osborne Effect,” The Register, June 20, 2005. Amongst these, Sega, which exited the video game console market entirely after preannouncements the a next-generation system killed enthusiasm for its Saturn console.M. Schilling, “Technological Leapfrogging: Lessons indigenous the U.S. Video clip Game Console Industry,” California administration Review, feather 2003.

Too much of a good Thing?

When network effects are present, much more users attract much more users. It is a good thing as lengthy as a firm have the right to earn money native this virtuous cycle. But sometimes a network result attracts too plenty of users and a organization can be so overwhelmed it becomes unusable. This so-called jam effectsWhen raising numbers of users lower the value of a product or service. Happen when increasing numbers of users reduced the worth of a product or service. This most regularly happens when a an essential resource becomes progressively scarce. Individuals of the game Ultima to be disappointed in an early online version that launched without enough monsters to fight or server power to handle the to like of fans. Twitter’s at an early stage infrastructure was frequently unable to handle the demands of a company in hypergrowth (leading come the frequent appearance of a not-in-service graphic recognized in the Twitter ar as the “fail whale”). On facebook users with a large number of girlfriend may likewise find their attention is a limited resource, as feeds push so lot content the it becomes difficult to separate amazing information from the noise of friend actions.

And when network effects can tempt positive security products, a leading standard may additionally be the an initial place where virus writers and malicious hackers pick to strike.

See more: The Legend Of Legacy Stances, Rpgamer > Review > The Legend Of Legacy

Figure 6.4 The Twitter fail Whale


Source: rob Friedman / playerx /
px (http://px.ns1.net).

Feel confident! currently you’ve gained a solid grounding in network effects, the key resource leveraged by some of the most leading firms in technology. And also these concepts apply beyond the kingdom of tech, too. Network results can define phenomena ranging from why part stock markets are much more popular 보다 others come why English is so commonly spoken, even among groups the nonnative speakers. On peak of that, the methods explored in the last fifty percent of the chapter show how to use these values to sniff out, create, and protect this key strategic asset. Go forth, tech pioneer—opportunity awaits!

Key Takeaways

Moving at an early stage matters in network markets—firms the move early can frequently use that time to develop a lead in users, switching costs, and also complementary commodities that deserve to be challenging for rivals come match. Extr factors that can help a firm develop a network effects lead incorporate subsidizing adoption; leveraging viral marketing, creating alliances to encourage a product or to increase a service’s user base; redefining the market to very nice one to more users; leveraging distinct distribution channels to reach new customers; seeding the market with complements; encouraging the advance of complements; and also maintaining backward compatibility. Developed firms may shot to make it an overwhelming for rivals to acquire compatibility through their users, standards, or product complements. Huge firms may also create uncertainty among those considering adoption of a rival by preannouncing contending products.

Questions and also Exercises

Is sector entry timing vital for network effects markets? Explain and offer an example to ago up her point. How could a firm subsidize adoption? provide an example. Give an instance of a cooperation or alliance target at enhancing network effects. Is that ever advantageous for that company to provide up regulate of a network and share it through others? Why or why not? Give instances to back up your point. Carry out firms that conquer their industries with network results risk government intervention? Why or why not? explain through an example. Exactly how did Sony particle the market for Blu-ray players? What does behind compatibility mean and also why is this important? What wake up if a for sure is not backward compatible? What tactic did Apple use to increase the acceptability of the Mac communication to a broader population of potential users? How has Apple kept clones in ~ bay? What are preannouncements? What is the peril in announcing a product also early? What is the term for an unfavorable impacts from premature product announcements? how did PayPal subsidize adoption? surname two companies that leveraged viral promo to compete. Surname a product the is the result of the convergence of media players, cameras, and phones. What is bundling? What are the upsides and also downsides that bundling? Why does Adobe enable the free download of Acrobat Reader? What tactic can an developed firm employ to make it impossible, or at the very least difficult, for a competitor to gain accessibility to, or become compatible with, your product or service? just how do Apple, Microsoft, and also Facebook encourage the development of complementary products? What is the “congestion effect”? offer an example. Perform network effects use in nontech areas? give examples.