Learning Objectives

specify network effects. Identify products and services that room subject come network effects. Understand the determinants that add value come products and also services topic to network effects.

Network effectsAlso known as Metcalfe’s Law, or network externalities. As soon as the worth of a product or organization increases as its variety of users expands. Are periodically referred to together “Metcalfe’s Law” or “network externalities.” yet don’t permit the dull names silly you—this concept is rocket fuel for technology firms. Bill gateways leveraged network impacts to turn Windows and also Office into virtual monopolies and in the process became the wealthiest guy in America. Note Zuckerberg of Facebook, Sergey Brin and also Larry page of Google, Pierre Omidyar of eBay, Andrew Mason of Groupon, Evan Williams and Biz rock of Twitter, Nik Zennström and also Janus Friis the Skype, Steve Chen and also Chad Hurley of YouTube, all these business man have constructed massive user bases through leveraging the concept. When network effects are present, the worth of a product or company increases as the number of users grows. Simply, more users = much more value. The course, most products aren’t topic to network effects—you probably don’t treatment if who wears the exact same socks, offers the same pancake syrup, or buys the same trash bags together you. But when network impacts are present they’re among the most important factors you’ll choose one product or company over another. You might care very much, because that example, if others are part of your social network, if your video clip game console is popular, and if the Wikipedia short article you’re to express has had prior readers. And also all those folks that bought HD DVD players sure were bummed once the remainder of the people declared Blu-ray the winner. In every of this examples, network effects are at work.

You are watching: Which of the following products or services is not subject to network effects?


Not That type of Network

The hatchet “network” sometimes stumps civilization when an initial learning around network effects. In this context, a network doesn’t describe the physical wires or wireless equipment that affix pieces of electronics. It simply refers to a usual user base the is able to communicate and share v one another. So on facebook users make up a network. So do owners that Blu-ray players, traders that buy and also sell stock over the NASDAQ, or the sum full of hardware and also outlets that support the BS 1363 electrical standard.


Key Takeaway

Network effects are among the most powerful strategic resources that have the right to be produced by technology-based innovation. Countless category-dominating organizations and technologies, including Microsoft, Apple, NASDAQ, eBay, Facebook, and also Visa, owe their success come network effects. Network effects are additionally behind the facility of most standards, including Blu-ray, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth.

Questions and Exercises

What are network effects? What are the various other names because that this concept? perform several products or solutions subject to network effects. What factors do you think helped every of this efforts attain dominance? which firm carry out you suspect has stronger end-user network effects: Google’s virtual search device or Microsoft’s home windows operating system? Why? Network results are often associated with technology, yet tech no a prerequisite because that the presence of network effects. Name a product, service, or phenomenon that is not pertained to information an innovation that tho dominates as result of network effects.

Learning Objectives

identify the three primary sources of worth for network effects. Recognize components that contribute to the continuing to be power and complementary benefits of a product or company subject to network effects. Understand exactly how firms favor Microsoft and also Apple each advantage from solid network effects.

The value obtained from network effects originates from three sources: exchange, continuing to be power, and complementary benefits.


Exchange

Facebook because that one human isn’t lot fun, and also the an initial guy in the people with a fax maker didn’t have actually much much more than a paperweight. Yet as each brand-new Facebook girlfriend or fax user comes online, a network becomes much more valuable because its users have the right to potentially connect with an ext people. This examples show the importance of exchange in creating value. Every product or service subject to network results fosters some kind of exchange. Because that firms leveraging technology, this could include something you can represent in the ones and also zeros that digital storage, such together movies, music, money, video games, and computer programs. And just about any typical that allows things come plug right into one another, interconnect, or otherwise interact will live or die based on its capability to snare network effects.


Exercise: Graph It

Some world refer come network impacts by the name Metcalfe’s Law. It gained this name when, toward the start of the dot-com boom, Bob Metcalfe (the inventor that the Ethernet networking standard) composed a tower in InfoWorld magazine stating that the value of a network amounts to its variety of users squared. What carry out you think the this formula? Graph the law with the upright axis labeled “value” and also the horizontal axis labeled “users.” do you think the graph is specific representation of what’s happening in network effects? If so, why? If not, what execute you think the graph really looks like?


Staying Power

Users don’t desire to purchase a product or sign up because that a service that’s likely to go away, and a variety of factors deserve to halt the accessibility of an effort: a firm can bankrupt or fail to entice a critical mass that user support, or a rival may properly invade that market and draw away existing customers. Networks with better numbers of users indicate a stronger staying powerThe long-term viability the a product or service.. The remaining power, or irreversible viability, that a product or company is specifically important for consumers of technology products. Think about that when someone buys a personal computer and also makes a selection of Windows, Mac OS, or Linux, your investment over time usually greatly exceeds the initial price paid for the operation system. A user invests in learning exactly how to use a system, buying and installing software, entering choices or other data, producing files—all of which median that if a product isn’t sustained anymore, much of this invest is lost.

The principle of remaining power (and the fear of gift stranded in an unsupported product or service) is directly related to switching costsThe price a consumer incurs when moving from one product to another. It have the right to involve actual money spent (e.g., buying a new product) and also investments in time, any data loss, and so forth. (the price a consumer incurs when moving from one product come another) and also switching prices can strengthen the worth of network results as a strategy asset. The greater the value of the user’s as whole investment, the more they’re most likely to take into consideration the remaining power of any offering prior to choosing to take on it. Similarly, the much more a user has invested in a product, the less likely the or she is to leave.

Switching costs also go by various other names. You might hear the service press express to commodities (particularly web sites) as being “sticky” or producing “friction.” Others may refer to the principle of “lock-in.” and also the elite Boston Consulting team is really talking around a this firm switching prices when that refers to just how well a company can produce customers who space “barnacles” (that are tightly anchored to the firm) and not “butterflies” (that flutter far to rivals). The much more friction available to stop users from moving to a rival, the better the convert costs. And in a competitive sector where rivals with new innovations show up all the time, that can be a very an excellent thing!


“It is this switching expense that has given our client the patience come stick v Windows with all ours mistakes, ours buggy drivers, ours high TCO An economic measure that the full price of owning a product (typically computing hardware and/or software). TCO includes direct costs such as purchase price, to add indirect expenses such as training, support, and also maintenance., our absence of a sexy vision at times, and many other challenges <…> customers constantly evaluate other desktop platforms, it would certainly be so lot work to move over that they hope we just enhance Windows fairly than pressure them come move. <…> In short, there is no this exclude, franchise us would have actually been dead a long time ago.”

Comments from a Microsoft general Manager in a memo to invoice GatesM. Parsons, “Microsoft: ‘We’d have Been Dead a long Time back without windows APIs,” ZDNet UK, April 22, 2004, http://news.zdnet.co.uk/software/0,1000000121 ,39152686,00.htm.


Complementary Benefits

Complementary benefitsProducts or solutions that include additional worth to the primary product or business that renders up a network. Space those commodities or services that include additional value to the network. These assets might encompass “how-to” books, software, and also feature add-ons, also labor. You’ll find an ext books on auctioning that emphasis on eBay, much more video cameras the upload to YouTube, and an ext accountants that understand Excel 보다 those tareted at any type of of their rivals. Why? publication authors, camera manufacturers, and accountants invest your time and also resources where they’re most likely to with the greatest market and get the greatest benefit. In auctions, video, and spreadsheet software, eBay, YouTube, and Excel every dwarf their particular competition.

Products and services that encourage others to offer complementary products are sometimes referred to as platformsProducts and services that permit for the breakthrough and integration of software application products and also other complementary goods. Windows, the iPhone, the Wii, and also the standards that enable users to create Facebook apps room all platforms..T. Eisenmann, G. Parker, and M. Valve Alstyne, “Strategies because that Two-Sided Markets,” Harvard company Review, October 2006. Allowing other this firm to add to your platform deserve to be a excellent strategy because those that company will invest their time and money to improve your offerings. Think about the billion-dollar hardware ecosystem the Apple has actually cultivated roughly the iPod and that the now expanding to other iOS products. There space over ninety brands marketing some 280 models that iPod speaker systems.S. Hansell, “The iPod Economy and C.E.S.,” New York Times, January 7, 2008. Thirty-four auto manufacturers currently trumpet their cars together being iPod-ready, countless with in-car docking stations and also steering wheel music navigating systems. Every add-on enhances the worth of selecting an iPod over a rival choose the Microsoft Zune. And also now through the application Store for the iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad, apple is act the exact same thing with software application add-ons. Software-based ecosystems deserve to grow an extremely quickly. In less than a year after its introduction, the iTunes app Store boasted end fifty thousand applications, jointly downloaded over one billion times. Much less than 2 years later, downloaded apps topped ten billion.

These three value-adding sources—exchange, staying power, and complementary benefits—often occupational together come reinforce one an additional in a means that provides the network result even stronger. When users exchanging details attract much more users, castle can likewise attract firms supplying complementary products. Once developers of complementary commodities invest time writing software—and individuals install, learn, and also customize these products—switching costs are created that boost the staying power the a offered network. Native a strategist’s view this can be an excellent news for dominant firms in sectors where network impacts exist. The larger your network, the more difficult it becomes because that rivals to an obstacle your leadership position.


Key Takeaways

Products and services subject to network effects get their value from exchange, regarded staying power, and complementary products and also services. Tech firms and services that get the command in this categories often overcome all rivals. Many firms attempt to boost their network effects by producing a platform because that the breakthrough of third-party products and also services that boost the primary offering.

Questions and also Exercises

What room the determinants that contribute to the value produced by network effects? Why is continuing to be power specifically important to many modern technology products and also services? Think about the kinds of modern technology products the you own that are subject come network effects. What kinds of exchange do these assets leverage (e.g., information, money, software, or various other media)? Think about the type of technology projects girlfriend own. What kinds of switching prices are inherent in every of these? space these strong switching expenses or weak convert costs? What would it take for you come leave one of these services and also use a rival? How could a competitor try to lessen this switching prices to persuade you to adopt their product? Which various other terms are sometimes used to describe the phenomenon of switching costs? Think around the type of technology products that you own that room subject come network effects. What kinds of complementary services are accessible for these products? space complementary benefits strong or weak (meaning, perform people select the product primarily based on these benefits, or for some other reason)? identify firms that you believe have constructed a solid platform. Deserve to you think of this firm that have tried to develop a platform, but have been much less successful? Why execute you mean they have actually struggled?

Learning Objectives

Recognize and also distinguish between one-sided and also two-sided markets. Know same-side and also cross-side exchange benefits.

Understanding Network Structure

To recognize the key sources that network value, it’s vital to acknowledge the framework of the network. Part networks derive most of their value from a single class the users. An example of this kind of network is prompt messaging (IM). If there might be part add-ons because that the most renowned IM tools, lock don’t influence most users’ selection of an im system. Friend pretty much select one IM tool over another based on how many of her contacts you have the right to reach. Financial experts would speak to IM a one-sided marketA sector that derives many of its value from a solitary class of users (e.g., prompt messaging). (a market that derives most of its worth from a single class the users), and the network effects acquired from IM customers attracting much more IM individuals as gift same-side exchange benefitsBenefits acquired by interaction among members the a solitary class the participant (e.g., the exchange value when raising numbers of im users gain the capacity to blog post each other). (benefits acquired by interaction amongst members the a solitary class the participant).

But some industries are made up of two distinct categories that network participant. Consider video clip games. Civilization buy a video game console largely based upon the variety of really an excellent games accessible for the system. Software program developers compose games based upon their capacity to with the greatest number of paying customers, so they’re most likely to write for the most well-known consoles first. Economists would speak to this sort of network a two-sided marketNetwork markets made up of two distinctive categories that participant, both that which the are necessary to provide value for the network to occupational (e.g., video game console owners and also developers of video games). (network markets comprised of two distinctive categories the participant, both the which that are essential to provide value for the network come work). When boost in the number of users ~ above one side of the market (console owners, for example) creates a increase in the other side (software developers), that’s dubbed a cross-side exchange benefitWhen boost in the number of users top top one next of the market (console owners, for example) creates a climb in the various other side (software developers)..


The hopeful Feedback Loop that Network Effects

IM is thought about a one-sided industry (or one-sided network), where the value-creating, positive-feedback loop of network results comes mostly from same-side services from a single group (IM members who lure other im members who desire to interact with them). Discount deal sites choose Groupon, however, are taken into consideration to be two-sided markets, where far-ranging benefits come from two unique classes of individuals that include value by attracting every other. In Groupon’s case, the more people that subscribe to get the firm’s day-to-day deal messages, the stronger the magnet the attracts potential advertisers who offer an ext deals, who subsequently attract more subscribers (and for this reason on). This dynamic has developed freak-show development for the Chicago-based firm. Much less than two years after Groupon was founded, Forbes asserted the for sure to be the fastest growing company in history.C. Steiner, “Meet the more quickly Growing agency in History,” Forbes, august 8, 2010. If the site has actually literally hundreds of competitors, few of the upstarts space formidable. The highly profitable Groupon finished 2010 through ten times the web traffic of that is nearest competitor.J. O’Dell, “By Traffic, Groupon Is Ten times Bigger 보다 Its Nearest Competitor,” Mashable, December 2, 2010. Groupon isn’t the end of the clean yet. Firms choose Facebook and Google—each through an established advertisement sales force and already solid relationships through advertisers—are launching their own day-to-day deal efforts, gunning because that Groupon’s growth. But as for the me-too wannabe upstarts—they’ve gained nothing.

It’s also feasible that a network may have actually both same-side and also cross-side benefits, too. Xbox 360 services from cross-side benefits in that much more users of the console attract much more developers writing more software titles and also vice versa. However, the Xbox Live network that permits users come play versus each other has same-side benefits. If your buddies usage Xbox Live and you desire to play against them, you’re an ext likely to buy one Xbox.


Key Takeaways

In one-sided markets, users gain benefits from connecting with a similar category of customers (think instant messaging, where everyone can send and also receive messages to one another). In two-sided markets, users gain benefits from interacting with a separate, complementary class of individuals (e.g., in Groupon’s daily-deal business, transaction subscribers room attracted come the platform due to the fact that there are much more vendors supplying deals, while sellers are attracted to Groupon since it has actually the many customers to get the deals).

Questions and also Exercises

What is the difference in between same-side exchange benefits and also cross-side exchange benefits? What is the difference in between a one-sided market and also a two-sided market? Give examples of one-sided and two-sided markets. Identify instances of two-sided sectors where both political parties pay for a product or service. Identify examples where only one side pays. What determinants determine who should pay? go paying have actually implications for the establishment and growth of a network effect? What could a firm perform to encourage early network growth? The Apple iphone Developer Program gives developers accessibility to the application Store wherein they deserve to distribute their free or commercial applications to numerous iPhone and iPod touch customers. Would the iPhone market be taken into consideration a one or two-sided market?

Learning Objectives

Understand exactly how competition in industries where network impacts are existing differ native competition in classic markets. Know the reasons why it is so challenging for late-moving, incompatible rivals to complete in industries where a dominant, proprietary standard is present.

When network results play a certification role, compete in an industry have the right to be fundamentally various than in conventional, nonnetwork industries.

First, network markets experience early, fierce competition. The positive-feedback loop inherent in network effects—where the greatest networks end up being even bigger—causes this. That company are an extremely aggressive in the beforehand stages of this industries due to the fact that once a leader i do not care clear, bandwagons form, and new adopters start to overwhelmingly donate the top product end rivals, tipping the sector in donate of one dominant firm or standard. This tipping have the right to be substantial swift. As soon as the bulk of significant studios and also retailers started to earlier Blu-ray over HD DVD, the latter initiative folded in ~ weeks.

These sectors are likewise often winner-take-all or winner-take-most, exhibiting monopolistic tendencies wherein one firm dominates all rivals. Look at at every one of the examples provided so far—in practically every instance the leading player has actually a industry share fine ahead of every competitors. When, during the U.S. Microsoft antitrust trial, Judge thomas Penfield Jackson claimed Microsoft to it is in a monopolyA sector where there are many buyers however only one leading seller. (a industry where over there are many buyers but only one leading seller), the collective solution should have actually been “of course.” Why? The natural state that a sector where network results are existing (and this consists of operating systems and also Office software) is for there to be one significant player. Because bigger networks offer much more value, they can charge client more. Firms with a commanding network effects advantage may likewise enjoy considerable bargaining strength over partners. For example, Apple, i m sorry controls over 75 percent of digital music sales, for years had the ability to dictate tune pricing, regardless of the incredible protests of the record labels.B. Barnes, “NBC will certainly Not Renew iTunes Contract,” New York Times, august 31, 2007. In fact, Apple’s stranglehold was so solid that it leveraged bargaining power even though the “Big Four” record labels (Universal, Sony, EMI, and also Warner) were themselves one oligopolyA market dominated by a small number of powerful sellers. (a market dominated by a small number of powerful sellers) the together carry out over 85 percent the music sold in the joined States.

Finally, it’s essential to note that the best product or organization doesn’t always win. Playstation 2 overcame the original Xbox in a former generation’s game console war, despite the reality that practically every review declared the Xbox to be hands-down a more technically exceptional machine. Why were customers willing to select an worse product (PS2) over a superior one (Xbox)? The power of network effects! PS2 had an ext users, which attracted more developers offering more games.


Figure 6.1

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Battling a leader through network results is tough.Adapted native J. Gallaugher and Y. Wang, “Linux vs. Home windows in the middle Kingdom: A strategy Valuation version for communication Competition” (paper, Proceedings of the 2008 conference of ameri Conference on information Systems, Toronto, CA, august 2008), prolonging M. Schilling, “Technological Leapfrogging: Lessons native the U.S. Video Game Console Industry,” California administration Review, spring 2003.


This last keep in mind is a vital point to any kind of newcomer wishing to attack an developed rival. Winning customers away from a leading player in a network market isn’t as straightforward as supplying a product or service that is better. Any kind of product that is incompatible v the leading network has to exceed the value of the technical features of the top player, to add (since the newcomer most likely starts without any users or third-party product complements) the value of the incumbent’s exchange, switching cost, and complementary product benefit (see figure 6.1). And the incumbent need to not have the ability to easily copy any type of of the newcomer’s valuable new innovations; otherwise the dominant firm will certainly quickly match any valuable improvements make by rivals. Together such, technical leapfroggingCompeting by offering a brand-new technology that is so premium to present offerings that the worth overcomes the complete resistance that older technologies could enjoy via exchange, convert cost, and also complementary benefits., or competing by supplying a exceptional generation of technology, can be yes, really tough.M. Schilling, “Technological Leapfrogging: Lessons from the U.S. Video clip Game Console Industry,” California monitoring Review, spring 2003.


Is This an excellent for Innovation?

Critics of firms that leverage proprietary criter for market dominance often complain that network effects are bad for innovation. However this statement isn’t totally true. While network impacts limit vain against the dominant standard, invention within a standard might actually blossom. Consider Windows. Microsoft has actually a vast advantage in the desktop computer operating device market, so few rivals try to complete with it. Apple’s Mac OS and also the open resource Linux operating mechanism are the firm’s only credible rivals, and also both have actually tiny industry shares. Yet the dominance of windows is a magnet for developer to innovate in ~ the standard. Programmers with novel principles are ready to make the investment in learning to write software for Windows because they’re certain that a windows version can be provided by the overwhelming bulk of computer system users.

By contrast, look in ~ the mess we initially had in the mobile call market. Through so plenty of different handsets include differing computing hardware, offering different screen sizes, running various software, having different vital layouts, and also working on various carrier networks, creating a game that’s easily accessible by the bulk of individuals is virtually impossible. Glu Mobile, a an equipment of digital games, introduced fifty-six reengineered build of monopoly to fulfill the varied requirements of simply one telecom carrier.N. Hutheesing, “Answer your Phone, a electronic games Is Calling,” Forbes, august 8, 2006. As a result, business man with good software principles for the mobile industry were deterred due to the fact that writing, marketing, and also maintaining multiple product versions is both costly and risky. The wasn’t until Apple’s iphone arrived, providing developers both a substantial market and a consistent collection of advancement standards, the third-party software advancement for smart phones really took off.


Key Takeaways

Unseating a firm the dominates through network impacts can be extremely difficult, particularly if the newcomers is no compatible through the created leader. Freshman will uncover their technology will need to be so great that it have to leapfrog not just the value of the created firm’s tech, but also the viewed stability that the dominant firm, the exchange benefits provided by the present user base, and also the benefits from any kind of product complements. Because that evidence, simply look in ~ how complicated it’s been for rivals to unseat the prominence of Windows. Since of this, network effects might limit the number of rivals that an obstacle a dominant firm. But the facility of a leading standard might actually encourage creation within the standard, due to the fact that firms producing complements because that the leader have confidence the leader will have actually staying power in the market.

Questions and also Exercises

just how is vain in sectors where network results are present different from competition in traditional markets? What are the reasons it is so an overwhelming for late-moving, incompatible rivals to complete in industries where a dominant, proprietary typical is present? What is technical leapfrogging and also why is the so daunting to accomplish? Does that make feeling to try to prevent monopolies in markets where network impacts exist? are network effects good or bad for innovation? Explain. What is the relationship between network effects and also the bargaining power of attendees in a network impacts “ecosystem”? mention examples wherein the best an innovation did not conquer a network effects-driven market.

Learning Objectives

Plot strategies for competing in sectors where network results are present, both from the perspective of the incumbent firm and the brand-new market entrant. Give examples of how firms have leveraged these strategies to complete effectively.

Why perform you treatment whether networks space one-sided, two-sided, or some sort of hybrid? Well, as soon as crafting your arrangement for sector dominance, it’s vital to recognize if network effects exist, how solid they could be, whereby they come from, and also how they might be harnessed to her benefit. Here’s a quick rundown that the tools at hand when contending in the presence of network effects.


Strategies for contending in markets with Network effects (Examples in Parentheses)

Move early on (Yahoo! Auctions in Japan) Subsidize product fostering (PayPal) Leverage viral promotion (Skype; facebook feeds) broaden by redefining the industry to bring in brand-new categories of individuals (Nintendo Wii) or through convergence (iPhone). Form alliances and also partnerships (NYCE vs. Citibank) create distribution channels (Java with Netscape; Microsoft bundling Media Player through Windows) seed the sector with complements (Blu-ray; Nintendo) Encourage the breakthrough of security goods—this can encompass offering resources, subsidies, diminished fees, industry research, advancement kits, venture resources (Facebook fbFund). Keep backward compatibility (Apple’s Mac OS X Rosetta translation software program for PowerPC come Intel) for rivals, be compatible with larger networks (Apple’s move to Intel; Live search Maps) because that incumbents, continually innovate to develop a moving target and also block rival efforts to accessibility your network (Apple’s initiatives to block access to its very own systems) For large firms with well-known followers, do preannouncements (Microsoft)

Move Early

In the world of network effects, this is a biggie. Being an initial allows your firm to begin the network impacts snowball rojo in her direction. In Japan, worldwide auction leader eBay showed up just five months after ~ Yahoo! introduced its Japanese auction service. Yet eBay was never ever able to mount a credible threat and also ended up pulling out of the market. Being just 5 months late price eBay billions in lost sales, and also the firm eventually retreated, acknowledging it can never unseat Yahoo!’s network impacts lead.

Another crucial lesson native the ns of eBay Japan? Exchange counts on the ability to communicate! EBay’s vast network impacts in the unified States and also elsewhere didn’t analyze to Japan because most Japanese aren’t comfortable with English, and most English speakers don’t understand Japanese. The language obstacle made Japan a “greenfield” sector with no leading player, and Yahoo!’s at an early stage move listed the catalyst because that victory.

Timing is often crucial in the video game console wars, too. Sony’s playstations 2 appreciated an eighteen-month lead over the technically remarkable Xbox (as well together Nintendo’s GameCube). The time lead aided to create what because that years to be the single most profitable department at Sony. Through contrast, the technically remarkable PS3 proved up months after Xbox 360 and also at approximately the very same time as the Nintendo Wii, and has struggled in its early years, racking up multibillion-dollar losses because that Sony.C. Null, “Sony’s accident on PS3: $3 Billion and Counting,” Yahoo! this particular day in Tech, June 27, 2008, http://tech.yahoo.com/blogs/null/96355.


What If Microsoft Threw a Party and also No One verified Up?

Microsoft launched the Zune media player with attributes that have to be topic to network effects—the capability to re-superstructure photos and music by wirelessly “squirting” contents to other Zune users. The for sure even supported Zune with the tagline “Welcome come the Social.” difficulty was the Zune Social was a party no one wanted to attend. The late-arriving Zune garnered a sector share of just 3 percent, and also users remained hard pressed to uncover buddies to leverage these neat social features.R. Walker, “AntiPod,” New York Times, august 8, 2008. A cool idea does not make a network result happen.


Subsidize Adoption

Starting a network effect can be tough—there’s little incentive to join a network if there’s nobody in the device to interact with. In one admittedly risky strategy, firms might offer to subsidize initial fostering in hopes that network effects can kick in soon after. Subsidies to adopters could include a price reduction, rebate, or various other giveaways. PayPal, a service that enables users to pay one an additional using credit transaction cards, provided users a usual rebate as a sign-up impetus to encourage fostering of its new effort (in one beforehand promotion, customers got ago fifteen dollars as soon as spending their first thirty dollars). This brief subsidy payment to early adopters paid turn off handsomely. EBay later tried to get in the market with a rival effort, yet as a so late mover its effort was never able to get rid of PayPal’s momentum. PayPal was at some point purchased by eBay because that $1.5 billion, and the business unit is now considered one that eBay’s an essential drivers the growth and profit.


Figure 6.2 Gilt Groupe iPad App

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Gilt’s ten-dollar iPad subsidy and also instant membership offer assisted fuel adoption of the iPad app. Mobile apps currently account because that 15 percent that the deluxe fashion site’s sales.


Gilt Groupe, a high-end fashion flash transaction site, supplied subsidies to increase fostering of the this firm mobile app “Gilt on the Go”—fueling the development of a brand-new and an important distribution channel. Gilt knew that obtaining its application into the purses and pockets of much more of its individuals would increase the chance that a customer would view an ext deals and also act on them. To encourage mobile owner to download the Gilt app, the agency offered prompt membership (as protest to its normal invitation-only model) and also a ten-dollar credit to the very first ten thousand brand-new subscribers. Awareness that Gilt ~ above the Go spread virally, and also apps prospered in a flash, accounting for 15 percent of the this firm revenue within months.B. Gutman, “Gilt Groupe discover Its Success with Mobile and also Social,” Forbes, may 17, 2011. Few of the ideal approaches to competing in network sectors will concurrently leverage numerous of the methods we’re outlining here, and in the case of Gilt, the subsidy helped develop viral promotion that in turn helped develop a new distribution channel.


When Even cost-free Isn’t an excellent Enough

Subsidizing adoption after a competitor has accomplished dominance can be one uphill battle, and also sometimes also offering a company for free isn’t sufficient to combat the dominant firm. As soon as Yahoo! presented a U.S. Auction business to complete with eBay, it originally didn’t charge sellers at every (sellers commonly pay eBay a small percentage of each completed auction). The hope was that through the remove of seller fees, enough sellers would certainly jump indigenous eBay come Yahoo! help the late-mover capture up in the network impact game.

But eBay sellers to be reluctant to leave for two reasons. First, over there weren’t sufficient buyers on Yahoo! to enhance the high bids they earned on much-larger eBay. Some savvy sellers played an arbitrage game where you will do it buy item on Yahoo!’s auction business at lower prices and resell castle on eBay, where an ext users bid price higher.

Second, any established seller leaving eBay would give up their an important “seller ratings,” and also would need to build their Yahoo! reputation from scratch. Seller ratings represent a an essential switching cost, as countless users see a high rating together a technique for to reduce the threat of gaining scammed or receiving lower-quality goods.

Auctions work best for differentiated goods. When Amazon has had actually some success in peeling far eBay sellers who administer commodity commodities (a real risk as eBay progressively relies on fixed-price sales), eBay’s leading share that the online auction sector still towers over all rivals.B. Stone, “Amid the Gloom, an E-commerce War,” New York Times, October 12, 2008. When there’s no magic in the servers supplied to create eBay, the at an early stage use of an innovation allowed the firm to develop both network effects and also switching costs—a twin strategic benefit that has offered it a hammerlock top top auctions even as others have attempted to mimic that service and also undercut the pricing model.


Leverage famous Promotion

Since every products and services foster some sort of exchange, it’s often possible to leverage a firm’s client to encourage the product or service. Net calling service Skype (now own by Microsoft) has over 6 hundred million registered users yet has actually spent nearly nothing ~ above advertising. Many Skype individuals were recruited by rather who mutual the native on totally free and low-cost net calls. And also rise of social media has made viral promo a device that plenty of firms can exploit. Facebook and Twitter act as a catalyst because that friends come share deals, spread out a an excellent word, authorize up for services, and load applications.


Expand by Redefining the Market

If a large market attracts an ext users (and in two-sided markets, much more complements), why no redefine the an are to carry in much more users? Nintendo go this once launching the Wii. While Sony and Microsoft concentrated on the graphics and raw handling power favored by hard-core masculine gamers, Nintendo decided to build a machine to appeal come families, women, and age groups that normally shunned alien shoot-’em ups. By going after a bigger, redefined market, Nintendo had the ability to rack up sales that gone beyond the Xbox 360, also though it followed the mechanism by twelve months.M. Sanchanta, “Nintendo’s Wii bring away Console Lead,” Financial Times, September 12, 2007.


Seeking the Blue Ocean? far better Think Strategically

Reggie Fils-Aimé, the president of Nintendo the America, describes the Wii Strategy together a Blue s effort.R. Fils-Aimé (presentation and discussion, Carroll college of Management, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, April 6, 2009). The ide of blue s strategyAn method where firms seek to create and compete in uncontested “blue ocean” industry spaces, rather than contending in spaces and ways that have attracted many, comparable rivals. Was popularized by european Institute of Business administration (INSEAD) professors W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne (authors the a book with the same title).W. C. Kim and also R. Mauborgne, Blue s Strategy: exactly how to produce Uncontested Market an are and make Competition Irrelevant (Cambridge, MA: Harvard service Press, 2005). View http://www.blueoceanstrategy.com. The idea—instead of competing in blood-red waters wherein the sharks of extremely competitive firms vie for every obtainable market scrap, firms should seek the blue waters the uncontested, brand-new market spaces.

For Nintendo, the granny gamers, moms, and also partygoers that flocked come the Wii represented an undiscovered feast in the Blue Ocean. Talk about new markets! consider that the best-selling video game in ~ the start of 2009 was Wii Fit—a genre-busting title the comes v a range so you have the right to weigh you yourself each time girlfriend play. It is a much cry from cool Theft Auto IV, the title ranking fifth in 2008 sales, and also trailing four Wii-only exclusives.

Blue s strategy regularly works finest when combined with strategic positioning defined in thing 2 \"Strategy and Technology: Concepts and also Frameworks for knowledge What off Winners indigenous Losers\". If very early mover into a blue ocean can use this command to produce defensible assets for sustainable advantage, late moving rivals may uncover markets unresponsive to their presence. The course, if her firm’s insurance claim in the blue s is based on easily imitated resources (like technology features), climate holding turn off rivals will be tougher. For holiday season 2010, Microsoft showed up v its own motion-gaming controller, the Kinect video clip camera system. Kinect was such a hit through generation Wii the it became the fastest-selling consumer electronics product in history, pump up Xbox 360 console sales and also goosing Microsoft’s entertainment division from zero to a exchange rate dollars in revenues in simply two years.S. Kessler, “Microsoft Kinect Sales optimal 10 Million, Set new Guinness people Record,” Mashable, march 9, 2011; D. Goldman, “Microsoft benefit Soars 31% on solid Office and also Kinect Sales,” CNNMoney, April 28, 2011.


Market development sometimes put rivals who previously did not contend on a collision course as sectors undergo convergenceWhen 2 or an ext markets, once taken into consideration distinctly separate, begin to offer features and capabilities. As an example: the industries for mobile phones and also media players space converging. (when 2 or much more markets, once thought about distinctly separate, start to offer similar features and capabilities). Think about the market for portable digital devices. Different product categories for media players, cameras, gaming devices, phones, and an international positioning equipment (GPS) room all starting to merge. Fairly than cede its dominance as a media player, to apologize leveraged a strategy recognized as envelopmentWhen one industry attempts to overcome a brand-new market by making it a subset, component, or feature of its major offering., where a firm looks for to do an existing industry a subset the its product offering. Apologize deftly morphed the iPod into the iPhone, a an equipment that captures every one of these product categories in one device. But the firm went further; the iphone phone is Wi-Fi capable, uses browsing, e-mail, and an applications platform based upon a scaled-down version of the same OS X operating system used in Macintosh computers. As a “Pocket Mac,” the very nice of the an equipment broadened beyond just the call or music player markets, and also within 2 quarters the launch, iPhone come to be the second-leading smartphone in north America—outpacing Palm, Microsoft, Motorola and also every other rival, other than RIM’s BlackBerry.R. Kim, “iPhone No. 2 Smartphone platform in north America,” The tech Chronicles—The san Francisco Chronicle, December 17, 2007.


Alliances and also Partnerships

Firms can also use tandem to thrive market share for a network. Sometimes these efforts carry rivals with each other to take the end a leader. In a classic example, take into consideration ATM networks. Citibank was the first major financial institution in new York City to offer a big ATM network. However the Citi network was originally proprietary, an interpretation customers that other financial institutions couldn’t take benefit of Citi ATMs. Citi’s development was insanity popular and being a pioneer in rolling out cash machines aided the firm grow deposits fourfold in simply a couple of years. Rivals responded with a partnership. Instead of every rival bank offering one more incompatible network destined come trail Citi’s lead, competing banks agreed come share your ATM operations with NYCE (New York Cash Exchange). If Citi’s network was initially the biggest, after ~ the NYCE start a Chase financial institution customer could use ATMs in ~ a organize of other financial institutions that extended a geography much greater 보다 Citi available alone. Network results in ATMs shifted to the rival bank alliance, Citi eventually joined NYCE and today, nearly every ATM in the United says carries a NYCE sticker.


Share or stay Proprietary?

Defensive moves like the ones over are frequently meant to diffuse the risk of a proprietary rival. Sometimes firms decide from the start to band together to create a new, more open standard, establish that collective support is an ext likely come jumpstart a network than if one certain tried to act with a closed, proprietary offering. Instances of this encompass the coalitions the firms the have functioned together to development standards favor Bluetooth and Wi-Fi. If no single member firm gains a direct profit native the sale of gadgets using this standards, the standard’s backers benefit when the market for tools expands as assets become much more useful since they are much more interoperable.


Leverage circulation Channels

Firms can also think around novel means to distribution a product or service to consumers. Sun confronted a challenge when launching the Java programming language—no computer systems could run it. In order because that Java to work, computers need a tiny interpreter program called the Java Virtual an equipment (JVM). Many users weren’t willing to download the JVM if there were no applications composed in Java, and no developers were willing to compose in Java if no one might run your code. Sun broke the logjam when it bundled the JVM with Netscape’s browser. When countless users download Netscape, Sun’s software program snuck in, nearly instantly creating a communication of millions because that would-be Java developers. Today, even though Netscape has actually failed, Sun’s Java remains among the world most renowned programming languages. Indeed, Java to be cited as one of the key reasons because that Oracle’s 2009 salvation of Sun, with Oracle’s CEO speak the language represented “the single most essential software asset us have ever before acquired.”A. Ricadela, “Oracle’s bold Java Plans,” BusinessWeek, June 2, 2009.

And once you don’t have circulation channels, produce them. That’s what to apologize did once it introduced the Apple retail stores a small over a decade ago. At the time of launch, practically every pundit intended the effort to fail. But it transforms out, the attractive, high-service storefronts to be the perfect communication to encourage the uniqueness of apple products. Apple’s 300+ stores global now lug in about ten billion dollars in revenue and are amongst the world’s many successful sleeve outlets on a sales-per-square-foot basis.C. Jade, “The Apple save at 10: Past, Present, and also Future,” GigaOM, may 19, 2011; B. Molina, “Apple Store most Photographed ar in brand-new York City,” USA Today, June 1, 2011.


Figure 6.3 Apple’s sleeve Stores

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Most pundits expected Apple retail to fail. Instead the stores detailed a wildly effective channel to reach customers, define products, and make sales. The Apple store on fifth Avenue in Manhattan was recently called the most photographed landmark in new York City.


As pointed out in thing 2 \"Strategy and also Technology: Concepts and also Frameworks for understanding What off Winners indigenous Losers\", Microsoft is in a particularly strong position to leverage this approach. The firm frequently bundles its brand-new products right into its operating systems, Office suite, Internet explorer browser, and also other offerings. The firm offered this tactic to transform once market-leader actual Networks right into an also-ran in streaming audio. In ~ a couple of years of bundling home windows Media Player (WMP) v its various other products, WMP ordered the bulk of the market, while Real’s share had fallen to below 10 percent.BusinessWire, “Media Player layout Share for 2006 Confirms windows Media Remains leading with a 50.8% re-publishing of video clip Streams Served, complied with by Flash in ~ 21.9%—‘CDN Growth and Market re-superstructure Shifts: 2002–2006,’” December 18, 2006; and also T. Eisenmann, G. Parker, and M. Van Alstyne, “Strategies because that Two-Sided Markets,” Harvard service Review, October 2006.

Caution is advised, however. Regional antitrust authorities may take into consideration product bundling by leading firms to be anticompetitive. Europe regulators have compelled Microsoft to unbundle windows Media Player indigenous its operating system and to carry out a an option of browsers alongside net Explorer.


Antitrust: genuine Versus Microsoft

From October 2001 come March 2003, Microsoft’s bundling of windows Media Player in versions of the operating mechanism ensured the the software came preinstalled top top nearly all of the estimated 207 million new PCs shipped throughout that period. By contrast, genuine Networks’ digital media player to be preinstalled on less than 2 percent of PCs. However here’s the kicker that acquired to regulators (and Real): Microsoft’s typical contract with pc manufacturers “prevented castle not only from removing the home windows Media Player, however even giving a desktop icon for genuine Networks.”E. Hansen and also D. Becker, “Real hits Microsoft with $1 billion Antitrust Suit,” CNET, December 18, 2003, http://news.cnet.com/Real-hits-Microsoft-with-1-billion -antitrust-suit/2100-1025_3-5129316.html; and T. Eisenmann, G. Parker, and M. Van Alstyne, “Strategies because that Two-Sided Markets,” Harvard company Review, October 2006. When network effects produce monopolies, governments may balk at permitting a firm to leverage its advantages in ways that are designed to deliberately store rivals native the market.


Seed the Market

When Sony introduced the PS3, it subsidized every console by selling at a price estimated at 3 hundred dollars listed below unit cost.C. Null, “Sony’s accident on PS3: $3 Billion and also Counting,” Yahoo! this day in Tech, June 27, 2008, http://tech.yahoo.com/blogs/null/96355. Subsidizing consoles is a typical practice in the video clip game industry—game player manufacturers normally make most of your money with royalties payment by video game developers. Yet Sony’s subsidy had secondary benefit because that the firm—it helped sneak a Blu-ray player right into every house buying a PS3 (Sony was backing the Blu-ray traditional over the competitor HD DVD effort). PS3 has struggled with fierce competition, however initially seeding the sector with low-cost Blu-ray players at a time as soon as that hardware offered at a really high price gave eventual winner Blu-ray part extra momentum. Since Sony is additionally a movie studio and manufacturer that DVD players and also other customer electronics, it had a particularly strong collection of assets come leverage to encourage the fostering of Blu-ray over rival HD DVD.

Giving away products for fifty percent of a two-sided market is severe example the this sort of behavior, but it’s often used. In two-sided markets, you fee the one who will pay. Adobe offers away the Acrobat reader to build a market for the revenue of software application that creates Acrobat files. Firms through Yellow page directories offer away countless copies of their products, yielded straight to her home, in bespeak to develop a industry for offering advertising. And Google does lot the very same by offering free, ad-supported search.


Encourage the development of complementary Goods

There space several ways to motivate rather to produce complementary goods for her network. These efforts often show off some form of developer subsidy or other cost-free or discounted service. A firm might charge reduced royalties or sell a period of royalty-free licensing. It can additionally offer cost-free software development kits (SDKs), maintain programs, co-marketing dollars, or also start-up funding to potential suppliers. Microsoft and also Apple both permit developers to sell their assets online with Xbox LIVE Marketplace and iTunes, respectively. This channel lowers developer expenses by remove costs connected with selling physical inventory in brick-and-mortar stores and can provide a cost-free way come reach numerous potential consumers without significant promotional spending.

Venture funds can also prompt this firm to develop complementary goods. On facebook announced it would spur breakthrough for the site in component by administering the fbFund, which at first pledged $10 million in start-up funding (in allotments of approximately $250,000 each) come firms writing applications for its platform.


Leverage backward Compatibility

Those this firm that manage a traditional would likewise be wise to ensure that new products have actually backward compatibilityThe capability to take advantage of complementary products emerged for a front generation the technology. With previously offerings. If not, they reenter a market at installed-base zero and also give increase a significant source that advantage—the convert costs gathered by front customers. For example, when Nintendo introduced its 16-bit at sight Nintendo system, it was incompatible v the firm’s very successful front generation 8-bit model. Competitor Sega, i beg your pardon had gotten in the 16-bit industry two years before Nintendo, had already gathered a large library of 16-bit gamings for the system. Nintendo gone into with only its debut titles, and also no ability to play games owned by customers of its previous system, so over there was tiny incentive because that existing Nintendo pan to stick v the firm.M. Schilling, “Technological Leapfrogging: Lessons native the U.S. Video clip Game Console Industry,” California administration Review, feather 2003.

Backward compatibility was the centerpiece the Apple’s strategy to revitalize the Macintosh through its relocate to the Intel microprocessor. Intel chips aren’t compatible with the instruction collection used through the PowerPC processor supplied in previously Mac models. Think of this as 2 entirely different languages—Intel speaks French, PowerPC speaks Urdu. To ease the transition, Apple had a cost-free software-based adaptorA product that enables a firm to tap right into the safety products, data, or user basic of one more product or service., dubbed Rosetta, that instantly emulated the usability of the old chip ~ above all brand-new Macs (a type of Urdu to French translator). By law so, all brand-new Intel Macs can use the base of existing software written because that the old chip; owner of PowerPC Macs to be able to update while keeping their investment in old software; and also software firms could still market older program while lock rewrote applications for brand-new Intel-based Macs.

Even much more significant, because Intel is the exact same standard provided by Windows, Apple emerged a free software adaptor referred to as Boot Camp that allowed Windows to be installed on Macs. Boot Camp (and similar solutions by various other vendors) drastically lowered the cost for Windows customers to switch to Macs. Within 2 years of making the switch, Mac sales skyrocketed to document levels. Apple currently boasts a commanding command in notebook sales come the education market,P. Seitz, “An Apple for Teacher, Students: Mac an equipment Surges in Education,” Investor’s service Daily, respectable 8, 2008. And a inspection by Yankee Group discovered that 87 percent of enterprise were utilizing at least some Macintosh computers, increase from 48 percent in ~ the end of the PowerPC era two years earlier.P. Burrows, “The Mac in the Gray Flannel Suit,” BusinessWeek, may 1, 2008.


Rivals: it is in Compatible v the top Network

Companies will desire to consider making brand-new products compatible v the leading standard. Microsoft’s Live Maps and also Virtual planet 3D arrived late to the net mapping game. Users had currently put in countless hours structure resources that meshed v Google Maps and also Google Earth. However by adopting the very same keyhole markup language (KML) standard supplied by Google, Microsoft could, together TechCrunch put it, “drink indigenous Google’s milkshake.” any work done by individuals for Google in KML might be supplied by Microsoft. Voilà, an immediate base of add-on content!


Incumbents: Close turn off Rival access and continuous Innovate

Oftentimes that company that regulate dominant networks will make compatibility an overwhelming for rivals who try to attach with your systems. Because that example, while many firms offer video clip conferencing and Internet calling, the clean leader is Skype, a product that for years had actually been closed to unauthorized skype clients.

Firms that constantly innovate do it particularly an overwhelming for competitors to come to be compatible. Again, we deserve to look come Apple as an instance of these ideas in action. If Macs run Windows, Windows computers can’t run Mac programs. Apple has embedded key software in Mac hardware, do it tough for rivals to create a software emulator like Boot Camp that would certainly let Windows computers drink indigenous the Mac milkshake. And also if any type of firm gets close to cloning Mac hardware, apple sues. The firm also modifies software on other products like the iPhone and also iTunes each time wily hackers tap into closed facets of the systems. And Apple has regularly moved to block third-party hardware, such as Palm’s mobile phones, indigenous plugging right into iTunes. Also if firms create adaptors that emulate a standard, a firm the constantly innovates creates a relocating target that’s challenging for rather to store up with.

Apple has been far an ext aggressive than Microsoft in introducing new versions of its software. Because the firm never stays still, would-be cloners never get enough time to create a trusted emulator the runs the latest Apple software.


Large, renowned Followers: Preannouncements

Large firms the find brand-new markets attractive yet don’t however have products ready because that delivery can preannounce initiatives in order to cause potential adaptors to sit top top the fence, delaying a purchasing decision till the brand-new effort rolls out. Preannouncements only work-related if a firm is huge enough come pose a credible danger to current market participants. Microsoft, because that example, can reason potential client to organize off on selecting a rival due to the fact that users check out that the firm has the sources to beat most players (suggesting staying power). Statements from start-ups, however, frequently lack credibility to delay user purchases. The tech industry acronym because that the influence firms try to impart on markets through preannouncements is FUD for fear, uncertainty, and also doubt.


The Osborne Effect

Preannouncers, beware. Announce an effort too early and also a certain may loss victim to what’s well-known as “The Osborne EffectWhen a for sure preannounces a forthcoming product or service and also experiences a sharp and also detrimental autumn in sales of existing offerings as individuals wait for the brand-new item..” it’s been argued that portable computer system manufacturer Osborne computer announced new models also early. Customers choose to wait because that the brand-new models, therefore sales of the firm’s existing offerings plummeted. If evidence suggests that Osborne’s decline had more to do with rivals offering better products, the an adverse impact of preannouncements has hurt a organize of various other firms.A. Orlowski, “Taking Osborne out of the Osborne Effect,” The Register, June 20, 2005. Amongst these, Sega, i m sorry exited the video game console market totally after preannouncements the a next-generation system killed enthusiasm because that its Saturn console.M. Schilling, “Technological Leapfrogging: Lessons indigenous the U.S. Video Game Console Industry,” California monitoring Review, spring 2003.


Too much of a good Thing?

When network impacts are present, much more users attract an ext users. That’s a great thing as lengthy as a firm have the right to earn money from this building cycle. Yet sometimes a network impact attracts too numerous users and a company can be so overwhelmed it becomes unusable. These so-called jam effectsWhen raising numbers the users reduced the value of a product or service. Occur when boosting numbers that users reduced the worth of a product or service. This most frequently happens once a vital resource becomes progressively scarce. Individuals of the game Ultima to be disappointed in an early online version that released without enough monsters come fight or server strength to manage the to like of fans. Twitter’s beforehand infrastructure was frequently unable to manage the demands of a company in hypergrowth (leading come the frequent appearance of a not-in-service graphic known in the Twitter neighborhood as the “fail whale”). Facebook users through a big number of friends may likewise find their attention is a restricted resource, as feeds push so much content that it becomes daunting to separate amazing information native the noise of girlfriend actions.

And if network impacts can attract positive complementary products, a dominant standard may likewise be the very first place whereby virus writers and also malicious hackers select to strike.

See more: The Legend Of Legacy Stances, Rpgamer > Review > The Legend Of Legacy


Figure 6.4 The Twitter failure Whale

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Source: plunder Friedman / playerx /
px (http://px.ns1.net).


Feel confident! now you’ve acquired a solid grounding in network effects, the vital resource leveraged by several of the most leading firms in technology. And these concepts use beyond the kingdom of tech, too. Network impacts can define phenomena ranging from why some stock industries are more popular than others to why English is so widely spoken, even among groups that nonnative speakers. On peak of that, the tactics explored in the last half of the chapter show how to usage these principles to sniff out, create, and protect this vital strategic asset. Walk forth, technology pioneer—opportunity awaits!


Key Takeaways

Moving beforehand matters in network markets—firms the move early can often use the time to create a command in users, convert costs, and also complementary commodities that can be challenging for rivals come match. Extr factors that can assist a firm create a network impacts lead encompass subsidizing adoption; leveraging viral marketing, creating alliances to encourage a product or to rise a service’s user base; redefining the industry to very nice to more users; leveraging distinctive distribution networks to reach new customers; seeding the market with complements; encouraging the advancement of complements; and maintaining behind compatibility. Established firms may shot to make it an overwhelming for rivals to obtain compatibility through their users, standards, or product complements. Large firms may also create uncertainty amongst those considering fostering of a competitor by preannouncing completing products.

Questions and also Exercises

Is market entry timing essential for network impacts markets? Explain and also offer an example to earlier up your point. How could a certain subsidize adoption? give an example. Give an example of a cooperation or alliance targeted at boosting network effects. Is that ever advantageous for this firm to provide up regulate of a network and share it through others? Why or why not? Give instances to ago up your point. Do firms that dominate their markets with network impacts risk government intervention? Why or why not? define through an example. Exactly how did Sony particle the market for Blu-ray players? What does behind compatibility mean and also why is this important? What wake up if a certain is no backward compatible? What tactic walk Apple use to increase the acceptability of the Mac platform to a broader population of potential users? How has actually Apple kept clones in ~ bay? What are preannouncements? What is the hazard in announcing a product also early? What is the hatchet for an unfavorable impacts from premature product announcements? exactly how did PayPal subsidize adoption? surname two carriers that leveraged viral promo to compete. Name a product that is the result of the convergence of media players, cameras, and also phones. What is bundling? What room the upsides and downsides that bundling? Why does Adobe permit the free download that Acrobat Reader? What tactic can an established firm rental to do it impossible, or at least difficult, for a competitor to gain access to, or end up being compatible with, your product or service? just how do Apple, Microsoft, and also Facebook encourage the advance of security products? What is the “congestion effect”? offer an example. Carry out network effects use in nontech areas? offer examples.