MCAT Biology help » essential Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Metabolism » Biochemistry and Metabolism » Glycolysis
Explanation:

Erythrocytes (red blood cells) have no mitochondria, and also thus cannot usage oxidative phosphorylation to produce additional ATP indigenous pyruvate obtained from glycolysis.

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Liver cells (hepatocytes), neurons, and muscle cells (myocytes) can derive some ATP from glycolysis, yet then feeding the result pyruvate into the Krebs cycle in the mitochondria for added energy production.


Which of the following biological processes will occur under both aerobic and anaerobic problems in humans?


Explanation:

The exactly answer is glycolysis. Fermentation is a pathway that requires anaerobic problems to activate. The citric mountain cycle and also Krebs cycle are two terms for the very same process, and also require aerobic problems to proceed. Glycolysis has actually pathways the account for cases both in the existence and lack of oxygen.


Explanation:

In glycolysis, four ATP molecule made from every unit of glucose, however, two ATP molecules are used during this process, for this reason the net an outcome of one ring of glycolysis is 2 ATP molecules. These assets are make via substrate-level phosphorylation, a process in which a phosphorylated molecule move its phosphate come ADP or GDP (producing ATP or GTP).

The other options are incorrect. Three NADH2 and one FADH2 are made in one ring of the Krebs cycle, not glycolysis. Glycolysis is one anaerobic procedure and takes place in the cytoplasm, not the mitochondria. Finally, pyruvate commodities do not necessarily have to go into the Krebs cycle—they deserve to be metabolized anaerobically if poor oxygen is present.


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Example inquiry #1 : Glycolysis


Which that the adhering to is a product that glycolysis?


Possible Answers:

O2


NADH


Acetyl CoA


Glucose


GTP


Correct answer:

NADH


Explanation:

In glycolysis, one glucose molecule and also two NAD+ molecule yield 2 molecules the pyruvate, two molecules of ATP, and also two molecules of NADH.

Acetyl CoA is formed from pyruvate at the start fo the Krebs cycle. GTP is a product of the Krebs cycle. Oxygen and also glucose are both reaction in metabolic processes that are acquired from external intake (respiration and also digestion).


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Example inquiry #1 : Glycolysis


Given the procedure of glycolysis, which of the complying with would serve to allosterically inhibit the rate of glycolysis?


Possible Answers:

Increased oxygen


Increased glucose


Increased fructose


Decreased ATP


Increased ATP


Correct answer:

Increased ATP


Explanation:

The product that glycolysis is ATP, and also each cycle offers a network of two ATP, therefore if over there were currently high levels of ATP in the body, glycolysis would not have actually to happen as frequently since the body"s energy demands are already being met. High level of ATP would certainly serve together an allosteric inhibitor.

Decreased ATP and also increased glucose would rise the rate of glycolysis. Increased oxygen or fructose may indirectly increase the rate of glycolysis, depending upon other to move factors.


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Example inquiry #2 : Glycolysis


Which that the following commodities is not developed by glycolysis?


Possible Answers:

Pyruvate


Lactic acid


ATP


NADH


Correct answer:

Lactic acid


Explanation:

Glycolysis is the first step of moving respiration. The is responsible for the manufacturing of two ATP molecules, 2 pyruvate molecules, and also two NADH molecules. Lactic acid is a byproduct that anaerobic respiration in skeletal muscle.


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Example concern #1 : Glycolysis


What is the ar of glycolysis?


Possible Answers:

The intermembrane space


The mitochondrial matrix


The cytosol


The outer mitochondrial membrane


Correct answer:

The cytosol


Explanation:

The very first step the respiration is glycolysis. All of the procedures of glycolysis take ar in the cytosol that the cell; this enables prykarotes to carry out glycolysis, and also eukaryotes.

Once pyruvate is produced from glycolysis, that is transported to the mitochondria to finish the citric mountain cycle. The electron transfer chain, the final step of cellular respiration, is located on the inside mitochondrial membrane, and utilizes the proton gradient in the intermembrane space.


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Example inquiry #1 : Biochemistry and also Metabolism


Which that the adhering to is not true that glycolysis?


Possible Answers:

It produce NADH


It calls for an entry of ATP to begin


It occurs in the cytoplasm


It is anaerobic


It produces four net ATP


Correct answer:

It produces 4 net ATP


Explanation:

Glycolysis to produce four full ATP molecules, however only produces 2 net ATP. The process requires an initial invest of two ATP come initiate the glycolysis pathway. By using two ATP and producing four, over there is a net manufacturing of 2 ATP.

Glycolysis is one anaerobic process that wake up in the cytoplasm. In addition to making ATP, glycolysis additionally generates NADH, i m sorry goes come play a function in the electron carry chain.


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Example question #1 : Glycolysis


Which of the adhering to is no a product in the net reaction for glycolysis?


Possible Answers:

Pyruvate


ATP


NADH


Water


ADP


Correct answer:

ADP


Explanation:

The glycolysis reaction follows two step. The initiation requires the input of 2 ATP, which end up being converted to ADP. Later in the process, however, 4 ADP are forced to produce four ATP products. ADP is spend in a higher quantity than it is produced, eliminating that from the net products.

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Example inquiry #1 : Biochemistry and Metabolism


What type of enzyme is responsible because that initiating the procedure of glycolysis?


Possible Answers:

Hydrolase


Phosphorylase


Kinase


Phosphotase


Correct answer:

Kinase


Explanation:

The early reactants for glycolysis are glucose, ATP, ADP, and also NAD+. The final assets are pyruvate, ATP, ADP, and NADH. To get from glucose to pyruvate, a number of enzymes are needed. While understanding the name of each enzyme is not typically necessary, that is crucial to have a basic understanding that the glycolytic process. The an initial step is phosphorylation of the reactant glucose, which is accomplished by hexokinase in most cells, and also by glucokinase in the liver and pancreas specifically. The resultant glucose-6-phosphate then continues through the remaining measures in glycolysis to produce pyruvate.


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