Key PointsHalogens are nonmetals in group 17 (or VII) that the regular table. Under the group, atom dimension increases. Together a diatomic molecule, fluorine has the weakest bond as result of repulsion in between electrons the the small atoms.Due to increased strength of valve der Waals forces down the group, the boiling points of halogens increase. Therefore, the physics state of the elements down the group transforms from gaseous fluorine to solid iodine.Due to your high efficient nuclear charge, halogens are very electronegative. Therefore, they are very reactive and can get an electron v reaction with various other elements. Halogens deserve to be harmful or lethal to organic organisms in adequate quantities.

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TermshalogensGroup 17 (or VII) in the periodic table consisting of fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At). They share comparable chemical properties.electronegativityThe tendency of an atom to tempt electrons to itself.

The halogens space a series of non-metal elements from team 17 of the periodic table (formerly VII). The halogens include fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At). The artificially created aspect 117 (ununseptium) may additionally be taken into consideration a halogen.

Physical Properties

Atoms get bigger down the group as added electron shells room filled. As soon as fluorine exists as a diatomic molecule, the F–F bond is all of sudden weak. This is because fluorine atoms room the smallest of the halogens—the atoms space bonded nearby together, which leads to repulsion between free electrons in the two fluorine atoms.

The boiling points of halogens increase down the group because of the increasing strength of van der Waals pressures as the size and also relative atomic mass of the atoms increase. This change manifests chin in a change in the step of the facets from gas (F2, Cl2) to fluid (Br2), to solid (I2). The halogens room the just periodic table team containing elements in all three familiar states of issue (solid, liquid, and gas) at conventional temperature and also pressure.

Physical claims of HalogensHalogens represents every one of the three familiar states that matter: (left come right) chlorine is a gas, bromine is a liquid, and iodine is a solid. Highly reactive fluorine is not had in the picture.

Chemical Properties

Electronegativity is the capability of one atom to lure electrons or electron thickness towards itself within a covalent bond. Electronegativity counts upon the attraction in between the nucleus and bonding electrons in the outer shell. This, in turn, relies on the balance in between the variety of protons in the nucleus, the distance in between the nucleus and also bonding electrons, and the shielding result of within electrons. In hydrogen halides (HX, whereby X is the halogen), the H-X bond gets much longer as the halogen atoms get larger. This way the common electrons are more from the halogen nucleus, which boosts the shielding of inside electrons. This method electronegativity decreases under the group.

Halogens are extremely reactive, and also they deserve to be harmful or lethal to organic organisms in enough quantities. This reactivity is because of high electronegativity and also high effective nuclear charge. Halogens can obtain an electron through reacting with atoms of other elements.

Fluorine is just one of the most reactive elements. The reacts v otherwise inert materials such as glass, and it forms compounds through the heavier noble gases. It is a corrosive and highly toxic gas. Fluorine’s reactivity way that when it go react with something, it bonds so strongly the the resulting molecule is inert and also non-reactive. Fluorine can react v glass in the visibility of little amounts that water to form silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4). Thus fluorine need to be tackled with substances favor the inert organofluorine compound Teflon.

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Fluorine reacts vigorously through water to create oxygen (O2) and hydrogen fluoride:

2 F_2 (g) + 2 H_2O (l) \rightarrow O_2 (g) + 4 HF (aq)

Chlorine has maximum solubility the 7.1 g every kg the water at ambient temperature (21 °C). Dissolved chlorine reaction to form hydrochloric mountain (HCl) and hypochlorous mountain (HClO), a solution that deserve to be offered as a disinfectant or bleach:

Cl_2 (g) + H_2O (l) \rightarrow HCl (aq) + HClO (aq)

Bromine has actually a solubility of 3.41 g per 100 g the water. It gradually reacts to type hydrogen bromide (HBr) and also hypobromous acid (HBrO):

Br_2 (g) + H_2O (l) \rightarrow HBr (aq) + HBrO (aq)

Iodine is minimally dissolve in water, with a solubility that 0.03 g per 100 g water. However, iodine will type an aqueous solution in the existence of iodide ion. This occurs through the enhancement of potassium iodide (KI), forming a triiodide ion.


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