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You are watching: Which factor influences both solubility and the rate of dissolution?

StatPearls . Endowment Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-.



Dissolution <1><2><3>

Dissolution is the procedure where a solute in gaseous, liquid, or solid phase dissolves in a solvent to kind a solution.


Solubility is the maximum concentration that a solute that have the right to dissolve in a solvent in ~ a provided temperature. At the preferably concentration that solute, the solution is claimed to be saturated. The devices of solubility can be noted in mol/L or g/L.

Factors that influence solubility include: 



The price of dissolution is represented by the Noyes-Whitney equation: dm/dt = D*A*(Cs - C)/h




Effect that temperature on liquid and solid solutes

As temperature increases, the solubility of a solid or liquid can fluctuate depending upon whether the dissolution reaction is exothermic or endothermic.

Increasing solubility with increasing temperature

In endothermic dissolution reactions, the net energy from breaking and also forming bonds results in heat energy being took in into the device as the solute dissolves. When the temperature of the mechanism increases, additional head power is introduced right into the system.
So follow to Le Chatelier’s Principle, the mechanism will adjust to this rise in the warm by fostering the dissolution reaction to absorb the added heat energy. Enhancing the temperature will because of this increase the solubility of the solute.
An example of a solute whose solubility boosts with greater temperature is ammonium nitrate, which have the right to be used in first-aid cold packs. Ammonium nitrate dissolving in equipment is an endothermic reaction. Together the ammonium nitrate dissolves, heat energy is absorbed from the atmosphere causing the surrounding environment to feeling cold.
In exothermic reactions, heat energy is released as soon as the solute disappear in a solution. Increasing temperature introduces more heat right into the system. Complying with Le Chatelier’s Principle, the device will readjust to this overabundance heat power by inhibiting the resolution reaction. Enhancing temperature, therefore, reduce the solubility the the solute. 
An example of a solute the decreases in solubility with boosting temperature is calcium hydroxide, which can be provided to treat chemistry burns and as an antacid.

Effect that temperature top top gas solutes

In general, heat power is released together gas disappear in solution, definition the dissolution reaction is exothermic. Together such, a gas becomes much less soluble as temperate increases.

Increasing temperature results in boosted kinetic energy. Gas molecules through greater kinetic energy move an ext rapidly resulting in the intermolecular bonds between the gas solute and also solvent breaking. 

Pressure: Henry’s law

The solubility of gas is impacted by changes in pressure on the system. A gas dissolves in liquids to type solutions. This results in equilibrium in the mechanism where a proportion of gas molecules is dissolved in fluid while the rest remains in gaseous phase above the liquid.

Henry’s law states that: “At constant temperature, the lot of gas the dissolves in a volume of fluid is proportional come the partial pressure of the gas in equilibrium v the liquid.”

Henry"s regulation results in the following equation: C = kP


C represents the solubility that the gas in ~ a certain temperature in a details solvent
K to represent Henry’s legislation constant
P represents the partial push of the gas i.e. The push the gas exerts top top the device at a given volume and also temperature

Hence as the pressure of the gas above the fluid in the system increases, the gas molecule become an ext soluble in the solvent. Likewise, if the push of the gas in the device decreases, gas becomes much less soluble in the solvent.

Issues that Concern

Limitations that Henry’s law on gas solubility:

Only applies if the gas molecules space in equilibrium
Does not use if over there is a chemical reaction between the solvent and the solute


Solubility <7><8><9>

Le Chatelier’s principle:

If stressors like pressure and heat are used to the equilibrium, the system will respond by adjusting to minimize the results of the stress.

For example, if push is used to a system, the dissolution reaction will respond to minimize this tension by to reduce the press in the system.

Heat of solution

Solids and liquids form together a an outcome of individual corpuscle being hosted together by inter-particulate bonds. To form a solution, power is compelled to break the bonds in between the particles in ~ the heavy or liquid. Heat power is additionally required to break the bond in a solvent come insert among the molecules into the solution. Both the these procedures are endothermic. Heat energy is released once the solute molecules form bonds v the solvent molecule i.e. This procedure is exothermic.

Depending top top whether much more energy is used to break the bonds within the solute and solvent or is released when brand-new bonds space formed between the solute and also solvent, the reaction overall can be exothermic or endothermic.

If much more energy is required to rest the bonds in ~ the solute and solvent than is released when brand-new bonds space formed between the solute and solvent, the reaction is taken into consideration endothermic.
If more energy is exit when brand-new bonds space formed in between the solute and also solvent than is compelled to break the bonds within the solute and also solvent, the reaction is thought about exothermic.

The complete amount the heat power released indigenous or absorbed by the device = amount of warm energy soaked up when bond are damaged – the amount of heat energy released as soon as bonds are formed

If the total amount of heat energy released/absorbed from the system is better than zero, the reaction is endothermic.
If the full amount that heat energy released/absorbed indigenous the system is less than zero, the reaction is exothermic.


Application of Henry’s Law: Decompression Sickness

Henry’s Law explains the phenomena that decompression sickness. Once scuba divers submerge themselves in deep water, the pressure of the water boosts the press in your bodies. Nitrogen, a gas in ours blood, dissolves under the increased pressure. Nitrogen is physiologically inert, so that is not used in tissue metabolism. If the scuba diver ascends come the surface ar too quickly, the rapid drop in pressure decreases the solubility of nitrogen, causing nitrogen bubbles to come the end of solution. The nitrogen balloon can kind painful and also potentially deadly gas embolisms.

Clinical Significance


Dissolution is necessary for health practitioners because, for drugs to be soaked up and have a physiological result in the person body, they should be in solution. Because that solid preparations, such together tablets and suppositories, the rate of dissolution affects how fast a medicine is absorbed in the body.


Aqueous solubility is often taken into consideration when formulating drugs. Poorly dissolve formulations provide difficulties in the advancement of pharmaceuticals. Chloramphenicol, phenytoin, and also digoxin space some examples. Drugs, an especially those for oral administration, may have poor aqueous solubility. This may result in low bioavailability top to inadequate exposure and also physiologic result in the body.

Review Questions


Joshi K, Chandra A, Jain K, Talegaonkar S. Nanocrystalization: one Emerging technology to boost the Bioavailability the Poorly soluble Drugs. Pharm Nanotechnol. 2019;7(4):259-278.
Itai S. . Yakugaku Zasshi. 2019;139(3):419-435.
Karaźniewicz-Łada M, Bąba K, Dolatowski F, Dobrowolska A, Rakicka M. The polymorphism the statins and also its effect on your physicochemical properties. Polim Med. 2018 Jul-Dec;48(2):77-82.
Sujka M, Pankiewicz U, Kowalski R, Nowosad K, Noszczyk-Nowak A. Porous starch and its applications in drug delivery systems. Polim Med. 2018 Jan-Jun;48(1):25-29.
Modica de Mohac L, Keating AV, de Fátima Pina M, Raimi-Abraham BT. Design of Nanofibrous Amorphous and Crystalline solid Dispersions for dental Drug Delivery. Pharmaceutics. 2018 Dec 24;11(1)
Couillaud BM, Espeau P, Mignet N, Corvis Y. State that the art of medicine Solid Forms: from crystal Property worries to Nanocrystals Formulation. ChemMedChem. 2019 jan 08;14(1):8-23.
Ribeiro ACF, Esteso MA. Transport Properties because that Pharmaceutical Controlled-Release Systems: A brief Review the the prestige of Their examine in biological Systems. Biomolecules. 2018 Dec 17;8(4)

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