Chapter 1. GeneralChapter 2. General ControlChapter 3. Airplane Traffic manage - TerminalChapter 4. IFRChapter 5. RadarChapter 6. NonradarChapter 7. VisualChapter 8. Offshore/Oceanic ProceduresChapter 9. One-of-a-kind FlightsChapter 10. EmergenciesChapter 11. Traffic monitoring ProceduresChapter 12. Canadian Airspace ProceduresChapter 13. Decision support Tools appendix A attachment B

7110.65 by Topic

basic Information general General control plane Traffic manage - Terminal IFR Radar Nonradar visual Offshore/Oceanic measures special Flights Emergencies Traffic administration Procedures Canadian Airspace actions Decision support Tools

Section 3. Leave Procedures

Avoid using the term “takeoff” except to actually clear an aircraft for takeoff or come cancel a takeoff clearance. Use such terms together “depart,” “departure,” or “fly” in clearances when necessary.

You are watching: What action is recommended if a pilot does not wish to use an instrument departure procedure?


REFERENCE-


NOTE-

When considered necessary, controllers or pilots may initiate check out backs the a clearance. Part pilots may be required by firm rule to do so.


Clearance Limit.Specify the location airport once practicable, even though it is outside managed airspace. Issue short range clearances as provided for in any procedures established for your use.When the clearance limit is one airport, the word “airport” need to follow the airplane name.
When the clearance border is one intersection or waypoint and the kind is known, the form must follow the intersection or waypoint name.

NOTE-

Presidential detail is responsible for ensuring the accuracy the the location airport.

PHRASEOLOGY-

DESTINATION together FILED.


Departure Procedures.Specify direction that takeoff/turn or early stage heading to it is in flown after takeoff as follows:Locations through Airport Traffic control Service-Specify direction the takeoff/turn or early stage heading together necessary, consistent with published:

NOTE-

It is crucial for controllers to recognize that there deserve to be distinctions in published climb gradients applicable come individual leave procedures offer the very same airport or runway. Assigning a various departure procedure there is no the pilot being able come re-brief may result in the pilot rejecting the new procedure.


REFERENCE-

AIM, Para 5-2-7. Leave Control.AIM, Para 5-2-9. Instrument departure Procedures (DP) - Obstacle leave Procedures (ODP) and also Standard tool Departures (SID).


Locations there is no Airport Traffic control Service, but within a class E surface area− specify direction of takeoff/turn or initial heading if necessary. Obtain/solicit the pilot"s concurrence concerning a rotate or heading before issuing castle in a clearance.

NOTE-

Direction of takeoff and also turn after takeoff can be obtained/solicited straight from the pilot, or relayed by an FSS, dispatcher, etc., as obtained/solicited from the pilot.


At all various other airports- perform not clues direction of takeoff/turn after takeoff. If crucial to specify an early stage heading to it is in flown after ~ takeoff, problem the early heading so as to use only within managed airspace.Where one obstacle leave procedure (ODP) has been released for a location and also pilot compliance is crucial to for sure separation, include the procedure as part of the ATC clearance.

EXAMPLE-

“Depart via the (airport name)(runway number) departure procedure.”Or“Depart via the (graphic ODP name) obstacle leave procedure.”

NOTE-

Some plane are compelled by 14 CFR 91.175 to depart a runway under IFR making use of the ODP lacking other instructions from ATC.

NOTE-

IFR takeoff minimums and also obstacle leave procedures space prescribed for particular airports/runways and published in either a textual, or graphic kind with the brand (OBSTACLE) in the procedure title, and documented ~ above an suitable urbanbreathnyc.com type 8260. Come alert pilots of your existence, instrument strategy procedure charts space annotated v a symbol:

*


Compatibility through a procedure issued might be verified by questioning the pilot if items obtained/solicited will permit him/her come comply with local traffic pattern, terrain, or obstruction avoidance.

PHRASEOLOGY-

FLY RUNWAY HEADING.DEPART (direction or runway).TURN LEFT/RIGHT.WHEN ENTERING regulated AIRSPACE (instruction), paris HEADING (degrees) UNTIL getting to (altitude, point, or fix) prior to PROCEEDING top top COURSE.FLY A (degree) BEARING/AZIMUTH FROM/TO (fix) until (time),orUNTIL getting to (fix or altitude),and if required,BEFORE PROCEEDING on COURSE.

EXAMPLE-

“Verify ideal turn after leave will allow compliance with local traffic pattern,” or “Verify this clearance will allow compliance through terrain or obstruction avoidance.”

NOTE-

If a released IFR exit procedure is not contained in an ATC clearance, compliance with such a procedure is the pilot"s prerogative.


SIDs:Assign a SID (including shift if necessary). Entrust a PDR or the path filed by the pilot, only as soon as a SID is not created for the exit route to be flown, or the pilot has indicated that he/she does not wish to use a SID.

NOTE-

Departure procedure descriptive text consisted of within parentheses (for example, “Jimmy One (RNAV) Departure”) is not consisted of in leave clearance phraseology.

PHRASEOLOGY-

(SID name and number) DEPARTURE.(SID name and number) DEPARTURE, (transition name) TRANSITION.

EXAMPLE-

“Stroudsburg One Departure.”“Stroudsburg One Departure, Sparta Transition.”

NOTE-

If a pilot does no wish to usage a SID approve in an ATC clearance, or any kind of other SID published for that location, he/she is intended to advise ATC.


If that is vital to assign a crossing altitude which differs from the SID altitude emphasize the change to the pilot.

PHRASEOLOGY-

(SID name and also number) DEPARTURE, other than CROSS (revised altitude information).

EXAMPLE-

“Stroudsburg One Departure, other than cross Quaker at five thousand.”“Astoria two Departure, other than cross Astor waypoint at six thousand.”


PHRASEOLOGY-

(SID name and also number) DEPARTURE. Cross (fix) at (altitude).

EXAMPLE-

“Stroudsburg One Departure. Cross Jersey intersection at 4 thousand. Cross selection intersection at six thousand.”“Engle 2 departure. Overcome Pilim waypoint at or above five thousand. Cross Engle waypoint in ~ or above seven thousand. Cross Gorge waypoint in ~ niner thousand.”


Route that flight. Clues one or much more of the following:Airway, route, course, heading, azimuth, arc, or vector.The routing a pilot deserve to expect if any component of the route beyond a short variety clearance limit differs from that filed.

NOTE-

Turbojet aircraft equipped with afterburner engines might occasionally be supposed to use afterburning during their rise to the en route altitude. Once so recommend by the pilot, the controller may be maybe to arrangement his/her traffic to accommodate the high power climb and enable the pilot to climb to his/her planned altitude without restriction.


To the maximum level possible, Air pressure One will be clearing unrestricted climb to:9,000" AGL or higher.If unable 9,000" AGL or higher, then the highest easily accessible altitude below 9,000" AGL.Assign the altitude asked for by the pilot.Assign an altitude, as close to as feasible to the altitude asked for by the pilot, andInform the pilot once to suppose clearance to the requested altitude uneven instructions are consisted of in the mentioned SID, orIf the asked for altitude is not meant to be available, notify the pilot what altitude can be expected and also when/where to mean it.Use one of the adhering to when the SID consists of published cross restrictions:Instruct aircraft to “Climb via SID.”Instruct the plane to “Climb via SID other than maintain (altitude)” when a peak altitude is not published or once it is vital to issue an interim altitude.

EXAMPLE-

“Cleared to Johnston Airport, Scott One departure, Jonez transition, Q One Forty-five. Rise via SID.” “Cleared to Johnston Airport, Scott One departure, Jonez transition, Q One Forty-five, climb via SID other than maintain flight level one eight zero.” “Cleared come Johnston Airport, Scott One departure, Jonez transition, Q One Forty-five, climb Via SID except maintain flight level one eight zero, expect flight level three five zero one zero minutes after departure.”


NOTE-

Use the “Climb via SID other than Maintain” come emphasize a released procedural constraint is an inappropriate use of this phraseology.

REFERENCE-


NOTE-

14 CFR ar 91.185, claims that in the occasion of a two‐way radio interaction failure, in VFR conditions or if VFR conditions are encountered after the failure, the pilot must continue the trip under VFR and also land as soon as practicable. The section additionally says that when the fail occurs in IFR conditions the pilot must proceed flight in ~ the greatest of the following altitudes or trip levels for the path segment being flown:The altitude or flight level assigned in the critical ATC clearance received.The altitude or flight level ATC has advised might be intended in a additional clearance.If the supposed altitude is the highest possible of the preceding choices, the pilot should start to rise to that expected altitude at the time or solve specified in the clearance. The an option to rise to the supposed altitude is no applicable if the pilot has proceeded beyond the specified settle or if the time designated in the clearance has expired.

PHRASEOLOGY-

CLIMB and also MAINTAIN (the altitude as near as feasible to the pilot"s requested altitude). Expect (the asked for altitude or an altitude different from the asked for altitude) at (time or fix),and if applicable,(pilot"s requested altitude) IS not AVAILABLE.


EXAMPLE-

A pilot has requested flight level 350. Flight level 230 is immediately available and trip level 350 will certainly be obtainable at the Appleton zero five zero radial 35 mile fix. The clearance will read: “Climb and maintain flight level two 3 zero. Expect trip level three 5 zero in ~ Appleton zero 5 zero radial three 5 mile fix.”A pilot has actually requested 9,000 feet. One altitude limit is required since of facility procedures or requirements. Entrust the altitude and also advise the pilot in ~ what fix/time the pilot might expect the asked for altitude. The clearance could read: “Climb and also maintain five thousand. Intend niner thousand one zero minutes after departure.”

REFERENCE-


Issue one abbreviated exit clearance if its use reduces verbiage and the following problems are met:
The route of trip filed v ATC has not been changed by the pilot, company, work officer, intake operator, or in the save flight arrangement program before departure.

NOTE-

A pilot will certainly not expropriate an abbreviation clearance if the route of trip filed v ATC has been changed by him/her or the firm or the to work officer prior to departure. He/she is supposed to notify the manage facility on early radio call if he/she cannot accept the clearance. The is the duty of the firm or operations officer to inform the pilot once they do a change.


All ATC facilities concerned have enough route of trip information to exercise their regulate responsibilities.
When the trip will depart IFR, destination airport info is relayed between the facilities pertained to prior come departure.

EXAMPLE-

A tower or flight service station relay of location airport info to the center when requesting clearance: “Request clearance for United four Sixty‐One to O"Hare.”A center relay come the tower or flight business station as soon as initiating a clearance: “Clearance because that United 4 Sixty‐One to O"Hare.”

NOTE-

Pilots room expected come furnish the facility involved with destination airport details on early radio call‐up. This will carry out the information vital for detecting any destination airport distinctions on facility relay.


EXAMPLE-

“Cleared to Missoula worldwide Airport, chef Two exit to Angley; straight Salina; then together filed; keep one 7 thousand.”

NOTE-

Changes, such as those made come conform through traffic flows and preferred routings, are only permitted to be made by the pilot (or his/her to work office) or the controller responsible for initiating the clearance to the aircraft.


Specify the location airport in the clearance.When no transforms are compelled in the filed route, state the phrase: “Cleared come (destination) airport, ( and SID transition, together appropriate); then, together filed.” If a SID is not assigned, follow through “As filed.” If required, add any additional instructions or information, including requested altitude if different than assigned.Use one of the following when the SID includes published cross restrictions:Instruct plane to “Climb via SID.”Instruct plane to “Climb via SID except maintain (altitude)” when a top altitude is not published or once it is essential to worry an interim altitude.

NOTE-

Use the “Climb via SID except Maintain” to emphasize a released procedural constraint is one inappropriate use of this phraseology.


Instruct aircraft to maintain (altitude) when:No SID is assigned.A SID does not contain released crossing restrictions and/or is a SID through a Radar Vector segment or is a Radar Vector SID.A SID is constructed with a Radar Vector segment and contains released crossing constraints after the vector segment.

PHRASEOLOGY-

CLEARED come (destination) AIRPORT;and as appropriate,(SID name and also number) DEPARTURE,THEN together FILED.When the SID does not contain published crossing restrictions and/or is a SID through a Radar Vector segment or a Radar Vector SID; or is a SID through a radar vector segment and also contains released crossing constraints after the vector segment.MAINTAIN (altitude); (additional instructions orinformation).Or when a SID contains published crossing restrictions,CLIMB VIA SID.CLIMB VIA SID other than MAINTAIN (altitude); (additional accuse or information).If a SID is not assigned,CLEARED come (destination) AIRPORT as FILED.MAINTAIN (altitude);and if required,(additional instructions or information).

EXAMPLE-

“Cleared come Reynolds Airport; David two Departure, Kingham Transition; then, together filed. Preserve niner thousand. Expect flight level four one zero, one zero minutes after departure.”“Cleared come Reynolds Airport; David two Departure, Kingham Transition; then, as filed. Climb via SID.”“Cleared to Reynolds Airport; David 2 Departure, Kingham Transition; then, as filed. Rise via SID except maintain flight level two four zero. Expect trip level 4 one zero, one zero minute after departure.“Cleared come Reynolds Airport as filed. Maintain niner thousand. Expect trip level 4 one zero, one zero minutes after departure.”


NOTE-

SIDs space excluded indigenous “cleared together filed” procedures.If a pilot does no wish to expropriate an ATC clearance to fly a SID, he/she is expected to recommend ATC or state “NO SID” in his/her flight plan remarks.
When a filed course will call for revisions, the controller responsible for initiating the clearance to the aircraft need to either:Issue a FRC/FRC until a fix.Specify the assigned altitude to maintain, or climb Via SID, or climb Via SID except maintain (altitude), as appropriate.

PHRASEOLOGY-

CLEARED come (destination) AIRPORT.Or when the SID does not contain published crossing constraints and/ or is a SID with a Radar Vector segment or a Radar Vector SID(SID name and number) DEPARTURE,(transition name) TRANSITION; THEN, together FILED, EXCEPT adjust ROUTE TO read (amended route portion). Preserve (altitude);Or when the SID includes published crossing restrictions,CLIMB VIA SIDCLIMB VIA SID except MAINTAIN (altitude).and if required,(additional instructions or information).If a SID is no assigned,CLEARED come (destination) AIRPORT together FILED,EXCEPT change ROUTE TO review (amended routeportion). Keep (altitude);and if required,(additional accuse or information).

EXAMPLE-

“Cleared come Reynolds Airport; south Boston One Departure; then, together filed, except adjust route to check out South Boston Victor Twenty Greensboro. Maintain eight thousand, report leaving four thousand.”“Cleared come Reynolds Airport; southern Boston One Departure; then, as filed, except adjust route to review South Boston Victor Twenty Greensboro; climb via SID.”“Cleared come Reynolds Airport; southern Boston One Departure; then, together filed, except adjust route to check out South Boston Victor Twenty Greensboro; rise via SID except maintain trip level one eight zero, expect flight level 3 one zero one zero minutes after departure.”“Cleared come Reynolds Airport together filed, except readjust route to read South Boston Victor Twenty Greensboro. Preserve eight thousand, report leaving 4 thousand.”“Cleared to Reynolds airport via Victor Ninety‐one Albany, then together filed. Maintain six thousand.”


In a nonradar atmosphere specify one, two, or an ext fixes, as necessary, to recognize the initial course of flight.Specify the location airport, as soon as practicable, adhered to by the word “airport” also though the is outside managed airspace.

PHRASEOLOGY-

CLEARED to (destination) AIRPORT


When the clearance border is a NAVAID, the type of NAVAID have to follow the NAVAID name.

PHRASEOLOGY-

CLEARED to (NAVAID name and also type)


When the clearance limit is an intersection or waypoint and also the type is known, the form must follow the intersection or waypoint name.

PHRASEOLOGY-

CLEARED come (intersection or waypoint name and type)

EXAMPLE-

The filed path of flight is indigenous Hutchinson V10 Emporia, thence V10N and also V77 to St. Joseph. The clearance will certainly read:“Cleared come Watson Airport together filed via Emporia, preserve Seven Thousand.”


NOTE-

Departure clearance procedures and phraseology for military operations within authorized altitude reservations, armed forces operations above FL 600, and also other military operations requiring special taking care of are contained in separate steps in this order or in a LOA, as appropriate.


REFERENCE-


Assign exit restrictions, clearance void times, or relax times to separate departures from various other traffic or to restrict or control the leave flow. Departures indigenous an airport there is no an operating regulate tower should be issued one of two people a exit release, a host for release, or a relax time.


REFERENCE-

urbanbreathnyc.com stimulate JO 7110.65, Para 10-3-1, date out Aircraft.urbanbreathnyc.com bespeak JO 7110.65, Para 10-4-1, website traffic Restrictions.urbanbreathnyc.com order JO 7110.65, Para 10-4-3, web traffic Resumption.


PHRASEOLOGY-

To one more controller,(aircraft identification) RELEASED.To a flight business specialist, or flight Data communication Specialist (FDCS).ADVISE (aircraft identification) RELEASED for DEPARTURE.To a pilot in ~ an airport there is no an operating manage tower,(aircraft identification) RELEASED for DEPARTURE.


Hold For relax (HFR).“Hold for release” instructions have to be used to notify a pilot or a controller the a departure clearance is not valid until extr instructions room received.

PHRASEOLOGY-

(aircraft identification) host FOR RELEASE, mean (time in hours and/or minutes) departure DELAY.


Release Times.Release times must be issued come pilots when necessary to point out the earliest time one aircraft may depart.

NOTE-

A release time is a departure restriction issued to a pilot (either straight or v authorized relay) to different a departing aircraft from other traffic.


The basic issuing a release time to a pilot must issue a time check. A relax time making use of a specified number of minutes walk not call for a time check.

PHRASEOLOGY-

(aircraft identification) exit FOR departure AT (time in hours and/or minutes),and if required,IF no OFF by (time), advise (facility) NOT later on THAN (time) of INTENTIONS.TIME (time in hours, minutes, and nearest quarter minute).(aircraft identification) released FOR leave IN (number of minutes) MINUTESand if required,IF no OFF IN (number the minutes) MINUTES, recommend (facility) the INTENTIONS in ~ (number of minutes) MINUTES.


Call for relax (CFR). Once CFR is in effect, relax aircraft therefore they room airborne in ~ a home window that extends from 2 minutes prior and also ends 1 minute ~ the assigned time, uneven otherwise coordinated.
If an aircraft has started to taxi or requests taxi in a manner continual with conference the EDCT, the aircraft need to be released. Added coordination is no required.If an aircraft requests taxi or clearance for leave inconsistent with meeting the EDCT window, ask the pilot come verify the EDCT.If the pilot"s EDCT is the same as the urbanbreathnyc.com EDCT, the aircraft is released continuous with the EDCT.If the pilot"s EDCT is not the very same as the urbanbreathnyc.com EDCT, describe Trust and Verify note below.

NOTE-

(Trust & Verify) EDCTs are revised by air Carriers and also Traffic administration for changing conditions en route or at influenced airport(s). Terminal controllers" usage of plane reported EDCT for exit sequencing need to be proved with the proper TMU front to leave if this can be achieved without the aircraft incurring delay beyond the EDCT reported by the aircraft. The preferred technique for confirmation is the flight Schedule screen (FSM). If the EDCT cannot be confirmed without incurring additional delay, the aircraft should be released based upon the pilot report EDCT. The aircraft operator is responsible for operation in a manner constant to satisfy the EDCT.


Clearance Void Times.When issuing clearance void time at airports there is no an operating regulate tower, carry out alternative instructions requiring the pilots to recommend ATC of your intentions no later on than 30 minutes after the clearance void time if no airborne.The facility delivering a clearance void time come a pilot must issue a time check. A void time issued using a specified variety of minutes go not need a time check.

NOTE-

If the clearance void time expires, it does no cancel the departure clearance (IFR flight plan). The withdraws the pilot"s authority to depart IFR till a new departure release/release time has been approve by ATC and acknowledged by the pilot.

PHRASEOLOGY-

CLEARANCE VOID IF not OFF by (clearance void time),and if required,IF no OFF by (clearance void time), advise (facility) NOT later on THAN (time) the INTENTIONS.TIME (time in hours, minutes, and the nearest 4 minutes 1 minute).OrCLEARANCE VOID IF no OFF IN (number that minutes) MINUTESand if required,IF no OFF IN (number the minutes) MINUTES, recommend (facility) the INTENTIONS within (number that minutes) MINUTES.


Do not release an plane if a ground prevent (GS) applicable to that aircraft is in effect, there is no the approval of the originator the the GS.

When aircraft elect to take hold-up on the ground prior to departure, concern departure clearances to them in the stimulate in which the requests because that clearance were initially made if practicable.

Inform technique control infrastructure and/or towers that anticipated departure delays.

Coordinate v the receiving facility prior to the exit of an plane if the departure suggest is much less than 15 minutes paris time native the transporting facility"s boundary uneven an automatic transport of data in between automated systems will occur, in i m sorry case, the paris time requirement might be lessened to 5 minute or changed with a mileage indigenous the boundary parameter as soon as mutually agreeable come both facilities.

NOTE-

Agreements requiring extr time space encouraged in between facilities the need previously coordination. However, once agreements develop mandatory radar handoff procedures, coordination requirements only be effected in a fashionable manner before transfer of control.


REFERENCE-

urbanbreathnyc.com order JO 7110.65, thing 5, ar 4, deliver of Radar Identification, Para 5-4-1, Application.


The actual departure time or a succeeding strip posting time have to be forwarded come the receiving facility uneven assumed leave times room agreed upon and that time is within 3 minutes of the actual leave time.

When an plane which has filed an IFR flight plan requests a VFR exit through a terminal facility, FSS, ARTCC flight Data Unit, or air/ground communications station:

After obtaining, if necessary, approval native the facility/sector responsible because that issuing the IFR clearance, you might authorize an IFR flight planned aircraft to depart VFR. Notify the pilot that the ideal frequency and, if appropriate, whereby or when to call the facility responsible because that issuing the clearance.

PHRASEOLOGY-

VFR leave AUTHORIZED. Contact (facility) top top (frequency) at (location or time if required) because that CLEARANCE.


If the facility/sector responsible for issuing the clearance is can not to problem a clearance, educate the pilot, and suggest that the delay be handled the ground. If the pilot insists upon acquisition off VFR and also obtaining an IFR clearance in the air, notify the facility/sector stop the flight setup of the pilot"s intentions and, if possible, the VFR exit time.

TERMINAL

Unless alternating procedures space prescribed in a letter of commitment or automatic exit messages space beingtransfer in between automated facilities, forward exit times to the facility from which you got the clearance and also to the terminal departure controller once that position is connected in the exit sequence.

See more: Find The Value Of C That Makes The Function Continuous At The


NOTE-

Letters of agreement prescribing assumed departure times or causing obligation radar handoff measures are alternatives for giving equivalent procedures.The letters “DM” flashing in the data block signify unsuccessful infection of a leave message.