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Java SE > Java SE Specifications > Java Language Specification




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Table the Contents

3.1. Unicode 3.2. Vocabulary Translations 3.3. Unicode Escapes 3.4. Heat Terminators 3.5. Entry Elements and Tokens 3.6. White an are 3.7. Comment 3.8. Identifiers 3.9. Keywords 3.10. Literals 3.10.1. Creature Literals 3.10.2. Floating-Point Literals 3.10.3. Boolean Literals 3.10.4. Personality Literals 3.10.5. Cable Literals 3.10.6. Escape Sequences because that Character and String Literals 3.10.7. The Null literal 3.11. Separators 3.12. Operator

This chapter mentions the lexical structure of the Java programming language.

Programs are written in Unicode (§3.1), but lexical translations are listed (§3.2) so that Unicode escapes (§3.3) have the right to be used to include any kind of Unicode personality using just ASCII characters. Line terminators are identified (§3.4) to assistance the various conventions of existing host systems while maintaining consistent line numbers.

The Unicode personalities resulting indigenous the vocabulary translations are decreased to a succession of input aspects (§3.5), which space white room (§3.6), comments (§3.7), and also tokens. The tokens space the identifiers (§3.8), keywords (§3.9), literals (§3.10), separators (§3.11), and also operators (§3.12) of the syntactic grammar.




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3.1.Unicode


Programs space written making use of the Unicode character set. Information around this character collection and its connected character encodings might be discovered at http://www.unicode.org/.

The Java SE platform monitor the Unicode specification as it evolves. The precise version that Unicode supplied by a provided release is stated in the documentation of the course Character.

Versions the the Java programming language before 1.1 provided Unicode version 1.1.5. Upgrades to more recent versions of the Unicode Standard occurred in JDK 1.1 (to Unicode 2.0), JDK 1.1.7 (to Unicode 2.1), Java SE 1.4 (to Unicode 3.0), and also Java SE 5.0 (to Unicode 4.0).

The Unicode conventional was originally designed as a fixed-width 16-bit personality encoding. That has because been readjusted to allow for characters whose depiction requires much more than 16 bits. The range of legal password points is now U+0000 come U+10FFFF, making use of the hexadecimal U+n notation. Characters whose code points are greater than U+FFFF are dubbed supplementary characters. To represent the complete selection of characters using just 16-bit units, the Unicode standard specifies an encoding referred to as UTF-16. In this encoding, supplementary personalities are represented as bag of 16-bit code units, the very first from the high-surrogates range, (U+D800 to U+DBFF), the 2nd from the low-surrogates selection (U+DC00 come U+DFFF). For personalities in the variety U+0000 come U+FFFF, the values of password points and UTF-16 code units space the same.

The Java programming language represents message in order of 16-bit password units, utilizing the UTF-16 encoding.

Some APIs of the Java SE platform, mainly in the personality class, use 32-bit integers to represent code points as individual entities. The Java SE platform gives methods to convert between 16-bit and 32-bit representations.

This specification offers the state code point and also UTF-16 password unit where the representation is relevant, and also the share term character where the representation is irregularity to the discussion.

Except because that comments (§3.7), identifiers, and the materials of character and also string literals (§3.10.4, §3.10.5), all input facets (§3.5) in a program are developed only indigenous ASCII personalities (or Unicode escapes (§3.3) which an outcome in ASCII characters).

ASCII (ANSI X3.4) is the American conventional Code for information Interchange. The an initial 128 personalities of the Unicode UTF-16 encoding room the ASCII characters.