For this evaluation we surveyed 3,030 U.S. Hispanic adult in December 2019 as component of the 2019 nationwide Survey that Latinos. We asked inspection respondents about their awareness that the ax Latinx and also their see of the term. The sample consists of 2,094 hispanic adults who were members the Pew study Center’s American patterns Panel (ATP), an online survey panel the is recruited v national, arbitrarily sampling of residential addresses. It also includes one oversample the 936 respondents sampled native Ipsos’ KnowledgePanel, one more online inspection panel also recruited v national, arbitrarily sampling the residential addresses. Because that the purposes of this report, referrals to foreign-born Hispanics encompass those born in Puerto Rico. People born in Puerto Rico room U.S. Citizens by birth. The inspection was conducted in both English and also Spanish.

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See the Methodology ar of this report for much more details.


The state Hispanic and also Latino are supplied interchangeably in this report.

Latinx is a term supplied to describe people who are of or relate come Latin American origin or descent. That is a gender-neutral or nonbinary alternate to Latino or Latina.

U.S. Born refers come persons born in the joined States and also those born in other countries to parental at the very least one that whom to be a U.S. Citizen.

Foreign born refers come persons born outside of the United claims to parental neither that whom to be a U.S. Citizen. The terms foreign born and also immigrant are provided interchangeably in this report. Because that the purposes of this report, foreign born likewise includes those born in Puerto Rico. Although individuals born in Puerto Rico are U.S. Citizens by birth, they room included amongst the foreign born for this report because they room born into a Spanish-dominant culture and since on numerous points their attitudes, views and also beliefs are lot closer to hispanics born abroad 보다 to hispanics born in the 50 claims or the ar of Columbia, even those who recognize themselves together being that Puerto Rican origin.

Second generation ad to people born in the 50 claims or the district of Columbia with at the very least one first-generation, or immigrant, parent.

Third and higher generation advert to world born in the 50 states or the district of Columbia v both parental born in the 50 states or the ar of Columbia.

Language prominence is a composite measure based upon self-described assessments the speaking and also reading abilities. Spanish-dominant human being are much more proficient in Spanish than in English (i.e., they speak and read Spanish “very well” or “pretty well” but rate your English-speaking and also reading capability lower). Bilingual advert to civilization who are knowledgeable in both English and Spanish. English-dominant world are much more proficient in English 보다 in Spanish.


Pan-ethnic labels describing the U.S. Population of people tracing your roots to Latin America and also Spain have been introduced over the decades, rising and also falling in popularity. Today, the two leading labels in use room Hispanic and Latino, with beginnings in the 1970s and also 1990s respectively.

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More recently, a new, gender-neutral, pan-ethnic label, Latinx, has arised as an alternative that is used by some news and also entertainment outlets, corporations, neighborhood governments and also universities to explain the country Hispanic population.

However, for the populace it is intended to describe, only 23% that U.S. Adults that self-identify together Hispanic or Latino have heard that the term Latinx, and just 3% speak they use it to explain themselves, according to a nationally representative, bilingual inspection of U.S. Hispanic adults performed in December 2019 through Pew research study Center.

The appearance of Latinx synchronizes with a global movement to present gender-neutral nouns and pronouns into many languages whose grammar has actually traditionally offered male or mrs constructions. In the joined States, the very first uses that Latinx appeared much more than a decade ago. The was added to a widely offered English dictionary in 2018, mirroring its greater use.

Yet the use of Latinx is not usual practice, and the term’s development has produced debate around its appropriateness in a gendered language favor Spanish. Part critics point to the origins amongst U.S. English speakers, saying it ignores the Spanish language and also its gendered form.1 Still, over there are examples of the term’s usage in Spanish in the U.S. And also abroad.2 Meanwhile, others watch Latinx as a gender- and also LGBTQ-inclusive term, mirroring a more comprehensive movement in ~ the U.S. Approximately gender identity.

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While only around a 4 minutes 1 of U.S. Hispanics say they have heard the hatchet Latinx, awareness and also use vary throughout different subgroups. Young Hispanics, eras 18 to 29, are amongst the most most likely to have heard that the term – 42% speak they have actually heard that it, contrasted with 7% the those periods 65 or older. Hispanics through college experience are more likely come be aware of Latinx 보다 those without college experience; about four-in-ten Hispanic college graduates (38%) speak they have actually heard the Latinx, as carry out 31% of those with some college experience. By comparison, just 14% of those with a high school diploma or much less are mindful of the term.

In addition, the U.S. Born are more likely than the international born to have actually heard the hatchet (32% vs. 16%), and Hispanics that are mainly English speaker or bilingual are much more likely than those who mostly speak Spanish come say the exact same (29% because that both vs. 7%).

Hispanics who determine with or lean towards the autonomous Party are more likely to have heard the Latinx than those who recognize with or lean towards the Republican Party (29% vs. 16%).

Awareness that the ax Latinx does not necessarily interpret into use. Throughout many demographic subgroups, the re-superstructure of Hispanics that say they usage Latinx to explain their own identity is considerably lower than the share that say they have actually heard it. Use is amongst the highest for hispanic women periods 18 come 29 – 14% to speak they use it, a considerably greater share than the 1% that Hispanic guys in the same age group who say they usage it.


The emergence of Hispanic, Latino and Latinx

Throughout the last half-century in the U.S., different pan-ethnic state have arisen to explain Americans who map their root to Latin America and Spain.

The term spain was very first used by the U.S. Government in the 1970s after mexican American and other Hispanic organizations lobbied the federal federal government to collection data top top the population. Subsequently, the U.S congress passed Public law 94-311 in 1976, mandating the collection of information about U.S. Inhabitants of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, central American, southern American and also other Spanish-speaking country origins. The law referred to as for the U.S. Census office to develop a more comprehensive category that included all people who identified having roots from these countries. The term hispanic was an initial used in a complete census in 1980.

The 1990s brought resistance to the hatchet Hispanic, together it adopted a strong connection through Spain, and also an alternate term emerged: Latino. By 1997, the U.S. Office of Management and Budget authorize a directive adding the term Latino to federal government publications. The two terms are offered interchangeably, through Latino very first appearing top top the U.S. Census in 2000, together Hispanic.

More recently, Latinx has emerged as an alternative to Hispanic and Latino. Online searches because that the term among the general U.S. Populace appeared digital in the at an early stage 2000s. However the very first substantial rise in searches (relative to all online searches) appeared in June 2016 following a shooting in ~ Pulse nightclub, an LGBTQ dance society in Orlando, Florida, the was hosting the Latin Night ~ above the day of the attack. In subsequent years, the term’s use on society media by celebrities, politicians and also grassroots organizations has actually grown. In addition, some scholastic centers at neighborhood colleges, windy universities and also Ivy organization universities room replacing Latino routine names that were established in previous years with brand-new Latinx-focused names.

In much more than 15 year of polling by Pew research study Center, fifty percent of americans who map their roots to Spanish-speaking Latin America and Spain have consistently stated they have actually no preference for one of two people Hispanic or Latino together a ax to define the group. And when one term is chosen over another, the hatchet Hispanic has been preferred to Latino. Importantly, the same surveys show, nation of origin labels (such as Mexican or Cuban or Ecuadorian) are preferred to this pan-ethnic terms among the population they space meant come describe.


Google searches because that Latinx rising in U.S., but trail far behind Latina, Latino and Hispanic

The family member popularity of Latinx in virtual searches in the U.S. Has increased because 2016, follow to a Pew research Center analysis of Google patterns data.3 while its faster Google searches extend ago to the early on 2000s, the highest monthly relative variety of searches for Latinx emerged in June 2020, surpassing a previous optimal in October 2019.4

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Compared through June 2020, monthly Google searches because that Latinx climbed substantially for the an initial time in June 2016, following the Pulse nightclub shooting in Orlando, Florida.5Despite its rise in popularity, Google searches because that Latinx remain below those for Latina, Latino and Hispanic over the previous decade. Amongst these terms, Latina has displayed the highest popularity, despite its re-publishing of searches has been falling family member to its optimal in June 2014.6

Should Latinx be adopted as a pan-ethnic term because that U.S. Hispanics?

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Among those mindful of Latinx, one-in-three to speak it need to be offered to explain the country Hispanic or Latino population.

While some Hispanics speak Latinx should be provided as a pan-ethnic term, few say they like it end others. A bulk (61%) say they prefer Hispanic to define the hispanic or Latino population in the U.S., and also 29% speak they favor Latino. Meanwhile, just 4% speak they favor Latinx to describe the spain or Latino population.

Preference because that Latinx together a pan-ethnic term is greater among those that are conscious of it – 10% in this group say they choose Latinx. Yet even amongst those mindful of Latinx, the terms Hispanic (50%) and also Latino (31%) space preferred.

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In their own words: What walk Latinx mean to Hispanics?

When request in an open-ended question what Latinx way in their own words, 42% of those who have actually heard the term describe it together a gender-neutral one. Together one 21-year-old mrs said, “Latinx is a much more inclusive term to use for those who do not choose to determine with a details gender. The state Latino and also Latina are an extremely limiting for specific people.”

Other responses native the open-ended question offer other descriptions that Latinx and also reactions to it. Because that example, 12% of respondents who had heard the Latinx refer disagreement or dislike that the term. Some explained the term as an “anglicism” that the Spanish language, while rather say the ax is “not representative the the larger Latino community.”

Among various other responses, 12% to speak Latinx is a term around being hispanic or Latino, if 9% of those aware of Latinx to speak it is one LGBTQ neighborhood inclusive term. And also 6% of respondents who have heard that Latinx speak it is a new, alternative or replacement term because that Latino.