Explain the impacts of a quantity controlUnderstand why quotas reason a deadweight loss

We looked at an example of the federal government regulating prices, and also concluded that a deviation native the equilibrium amount is what causes a deadweight loss. What if the government regulates quantity directly? It have to be fairly obvious the this will additionally cause a deadweight loss, yet the circulation of excess will be different.

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In number 4.6a, we display the industry for oil. The equilibrium amount is 3.5 million barrels that oil. Assume the government, pursuing an ecological strategy, wants to minimize both the level that production and consumption. A policy to reduce quantity is referred to as a quota, a government-imposed limit on the variety of goods bought and also sold. If the federal government sets a quota that 2 million barrels, both consumers and producers need to reduce consumption and also production to that level.

Figure 4.6a

We deserve to see from number 4.6b that together a an outcome of the quota, price increases from $2.9/gallon come $3.8/gallon. This may seem counter-intuitive. The government set a restriction on quantity, and also price changed as well. Notification that in ~ the restricted quantity of 2 million barrels, consumers space willing to pay $3.8/gallon. The producers, see the consumers room willing to pay more than the previous price the $2.9/gallon, will increase prices come $3.8/gallon.

Figure 4.6bMarket Surplus

To research the effects of this quota ~ above the individual stakeholders, and the market as a whole, we can calculate the readjust in consumer Surplus, Producer Surplus, and Market Surplus.


The industry surplus prior to has not been depicted, as the process should it is in routine. Ensure you understand exactly how to discover the adhering to values:

Consumer Surplus = $3.675 million

Producer Surplus = $5.075 million

Market excess = $8.75 million


The sector surplus after the policy have the right to be calculated with:

Consumer excess (Blue Area) = $1.2 million

Producer Surplus (Red Area + Yellow Area)= $5.9 million

Market Surplus = $7.1 million

Comparing market surplus before and market surplus after, notification that the effect of a quota is comparable to that of a price floor. The main difference is the the federal government put a limit on quantity, and price changed as a by-product, whereas v price constraints the federal government puts a restriction on price, through quantity changing as a by-product.


A quota is the easiest of the federal government policies we will certainly look at. The is a straightforward means for the government to limit production. We will see later on that if this policy decreases industry surplus, it have the right to be beneficial for other reasons.

Exercises 4.6


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i beg your pardon of the following CANNOT alleviate the equilibrium quantity sold in a market?

a) A price ceiling.b) A price floor.c) A quota.d) every one of the over can to decrease equilibrium amount sold.