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Born:1336Uzbekistan...(Show more)Died:February 19, 1405 (aged 69)ShymkentKazakhstan...(Show more)House / Dynasty:Timurid dynasty...(Show more)Notable family Members:son Shāh Rokh...(Show more)Role In:Battle of Aleppo...(Show more)

Timur to be the last central Asianconqueror to achieve an excellent military successes together a leader of wanderer warrior lords, judgment both agricultural and pastoral individuals on an imperial scale. He is remembered for the barbarity the his conquests, fromIndiaand Russia come theMediterranean Sea,and because that the social achievements that hisdynasty.


Timur was a member that the Turkicized Barlas tribe, aMongolsubgroup the had worked out inTransoxania(now about corresponding to Uzbekistan) after taking component inGenghis Khan’s sonChagatai’s campaigns in the region. Timur thus grew up in what was recognized as the Chagatai khanate.


Timur led a little nomad band and, by guile and also force that arms, created dominion end Transoxania through the 1360s. Around 1370 Timur proclaimed himself sovereignof the Chagatai heat of khans and also restorer of theMongol empire. He then for three decades led his military to subdue each state fromMongoliato the Mediterranean.


Timur invested his life top a nearly continuous military campaign. The nomadic techniques of mobility and also surprise to be his major weapons that attack. He was brutal come his enemies, massacring cities, and he never ever missed an chance to exploit the weakness of the devil or to use intrigue, treachery, and alliance to serve his purposes.


Under Timur and also his successors, Samarkand ended up being a centre of scholarship and also science. His mausoleum there, theGūr-e Amīr, is among the gems of Islamic art. The Timurid dynasty survived in central Asia because that a century, and Timur’s descendantBābur established the Muslim heat of Indian emperors recognized as the GreatMughals.


Timur, also spelled Timour, byname Timur Lenk or Timurlenk (Turkish: “Timur the Lame”), English Tamerlane or Tamburlaine, (born 1336, Kesh, close to Samarkand, Transoxania —died February 19, 1405, Otrar, close to Chimkent ), Turkic conqueror, chiefly remembered because that the barbarity that his conquests from India and Russia come the Mediterranean Sea and for the social achievements that his dynasty.

Life

Timur to be a member that the Turkicized Barlas tribe, a Mongol subgroup the had worked out in Transoxania (now around corresponding come Uzbekistan) after taking part in Genghis Khan’s kid Chagatai’s campaigns in that region. Timur thus grew up in what was well-known as the Chagatai khanate. After the fatality in 1357 of Transoxania’s existing ruler, Amir Kazgan, Timur asserted his fealty come the khan of nearby Kashgar, Tughluq Temür, who had actually overrun Transoxania’s chief city, Samarkand, in 1361. Tughluq Temür appointed his son Ilyas Khoja as governor of Transoxania, with Timur together his minister. Yet shortly afterward Timur fled and also rejoined his brother-in-law Amir Husayn, the grandson of Amir Kazgan. They defeated Ilyas Khoja (1364) and set out to overcome Transoxania, achieving certain possession that the an ar around 1366. Around 1370 Timur turned against Husayn, besieged him in Balkh, and, ~ Husayn’s assassination, proclaimed self at Samarkand can be fried of the Chagatai heat of khans and also restorer of the Mongol empire.

For the next 10 year Timur fought versus the khans that Jatah (eastern Turkistan) and also Khwārezm, ultimately occupying Kashgar in 1380. That gave equipped support to Tokhtamysh, who was the Mongol cannes of Crimea and a refugee at his court, against the Russians (who had actually risen against the cannes of the golden Horde, Mamai); and his troops inhabited Moscow and also defeated the Lithuanians near Poltava.

In 1383 Timur started his occupations in Persia v the capture of Herāt. The Persian political and also economic case was very precarious. The indicators of recovery clearly shows under the later Mongol rulers well-known as the Il-Khanid empire had been followed by a setback after ~ the fatality of the critical Il-Khanid, Abu said (1335). The vacuum of strength was fill by competitor dynasties, take it by inner dissensions and also unable to put up joint or effective resistance. Khorāsān and all eastern Persia fell to him in 1383–85; Fars, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Mesopotamia, and also Georgia every fell in between 1386 and 1394. In the intervals, the was involved with Tokhtamysh, then khan of the golden Horde, whose forces invaded Azerbaijan in 1385 and also Transoxania in 1388, defeating Timur’s generals. In 1391 Timur sought Tokhtamysh right into the Russian steppes and defeated and dethroned him; but Tokhtamysh elevated a brand-new army and also invaded the Caucasus in 1395. ~ his final defeat ~ above the Kur River, Tokhtamysh provided up the struggle; Timur inhabited Moscow for a year. The revolts that broke out almost everywhere Persia while Timur was away top top these campaigns were repressed through ruthless vigour; totality cities to be destroyed, their populations massacred, and towers developed of your skulls.


In 1398 Timur invaded India on the pretext that the Muslim sultans the Delhi to be showing excessive tolerance to their Hindu subjects. He overcome the Indus river on September 24 and, leaving a follow of carnage, marched top top Delhi. The army of the Delhi sultan Mahmud Tughluq was destroyed at Panipat top top December 17, and also Delhi was diminished to a mass of ruins, indigenous which it took much more than a century come emerge. By April 1399 Timur was ago in his very own capital. An tremendous quantity of spoil to be conveyed away; according to Ruy González de Clavijo, 90 captured elephants were employed to carry stones from quarries come erect a mosque in ~ Samarkand.

Timur set out prior to the end of 1399 top top his last an excellent expedition, in stimulate to punishment the Mamlūk sultan the Egypt and the footrest sultan Bayezid ns for your seizures of certain of his territories. After restoring his regulate over Azerbaijan, the marched on Syria; Aleppo was stormed and also sacked, the Mamlūk army defeated, and also Damascus populated (1401), the deportation that its artist to Samarkand gift a fatal punch to that is prosperity. In 1401 Baghdad was also taken by storm, 20,000 that its citizens were massacred, and also all its monuments to be destroyed. After ~ wintering in Georgia, Timur invaded Anatolia, damaged Bayezid’s army near Ankara (July 20, 1402), and also captured Smyrna from the Knights that Rhodes. Having received offers of submission from the sultan of Egypt and also from john VII (then coemperor the the oriental Empire through Manuel II Palaeologus), Timur returned to Samarkand (1404) and prepared for an exploration to China. He set out in ~ the end of December, fell ill at Otrar top top the Syr Darya west the Chimkent, and died in February 1405. His body to be embalmed, to adjust in one ebony coffin, and sent to Samarkand, where it was buried in the sumptuous tomb dubbed Gūr-e Amīr. Prior to his fatality he had split his territories amongst his two surviving sons and also his grandsons, and, after years of internecine struggles, the soil were rejoined by his youngest son, Shāh Rokh.

Legacy

Timur began his rise as leader the a little nomad band and also by guile and also force of arms established dominion end the lands in between the Oxus and also Jaxartes rivers (Transoxania) through the 1360s. The then, for three decades, led his placed archers come subdue each state indigenous Mongolia to the Mediterranean. He to be the last of the mighty conquerors of main Asia to achieve such army successes together leader of the nomad warrior lords, judgment both farming and pastoral peoples on an royal scale. The poverty, bloodshed, and desolation caused by his projects gave rise to many legends, which subsequently inspired such functions as Christopher Marlowe’s Tamburlaine the Great.

The surname Timur Lenk signified Timur the Lame, a location of contempt provided by his Persian enemies, which came to be Tamburlaine, or Tamerlane, in Europe. Timur was heir come a political, economic, and social heritage rooted in the pastoral peoples and nomad legacies of main Asia. He and also his compatriots grew the armed forces arts and also discipline of Genghis cannes and, as mounted archers and also swordsmen, scorned the worked out peasants. Timur never ever took up a long-term abode. He personally led his practically constantly marketing forces, enduring extremes the desert heat and lacerating cold. When not marketing he relocated with his military according to season and grazing facilities. His court traveled v him, including his household of one or an ext of his nine wives and concubines. He strove to make his capital, Samarkand, the many splendid city in Asia, yet when he saw it the stayed just a few days and also then moved ago to the pavilions the his encampment in the plains beyond the city.

Timur was, above all, understand of the army techniques occurred by Genghis Khan, using every weapon in the military and diplomatic armory of the day. He never missed an chance to exploit the weakness (political, economic, or military) the the adversary or to use intrigue, treachery, and alliance to offer his purposes. The seed of success were sown amongst the ranks of the foe by his agents prior to an engagement. The conducted advanced negotiations with both neighbouring and distant powers, i m sorry are tape-recorded in diplomatic archives from England come China. In battle, the nomadic strategies of mobility and also surprise to be his significant weapons of attack.

Timur’s most lasting memorials room the Timurid architectural monuments of Samarkand, spanned in azure, turquoise, gold, and alabaster mosaics; these are overcame by the good cathedral mosque, damaged by an earthquake however still soaring to an enormous fragment of dome. His mausoleum, the Gūr-e Amīr, is just one of the jewel of Islamic art. Within the sepulchre he lies under a huge, damaged slab the jade. The tomb was opened up in 1941, having remained undamaged for half a millennium. The Soviet archaeological Commission uncovered the skeleton that a man who, though lame in both best limbs, must have actually been of powerful physique and above-average height.


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Timur’s sons and grandsons combated over the succession when the Chinese exploration disbanded, but his dynasty (see Timurid dynasty) survived in central Asia for a century despite fratricidal strife. Samarkand ended up being a centre of scholarship and science. The was below that Ulūgh Beg, his grandson, set up an observatory and drew increase the astronomical tables the were later used by the English imperial astronomer in the 17th century. During the Timurid renaissance that the 15th century, Herāt, south-east of Samarkand, became the home of the brilliant college of Persian miniaturists. At the beginning of the 16th century, when the dynasty ended in main Asia, his descendant Bābur established himself in Kabul and then dominated Delhi, to uncovered the Muslim heat of Indian emperors recognized as the good Mughals.

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