-Def: Includes all activities an organization undertakes to ensure that its actions lead to achievement of its objectives.

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-Def: A planned, ordered scheme of management control that allows managers to readily assess where the firm actually is at a point in time relative to where it wants or expects to be.
-Def: Processes that are developed to provide assurance that an organization reaches its objectives relating to operational efficiency.
-All the good planning efforts and brilliant ideas in the world do little good if a firm has no system of management control. -Control, therefore, is an essential part of effective organizational management.-Specifically, control helps an organization adapt to changing conditions, limits the magnification of errors, assists in dealing with increased complexity, and helps minimize costs.
-Change itself is about the only thing that can be predicted with any degree of certainty in turbulent (not controlled or calm) markets.-A properly designed management control system can allow managers to effectively anticipate, monitor, and respond to often constantly changing environmental conditions.-Most firms monitor financial performance as a key quantitative control measure.
-Generally, a small error or mistake does not adversely (prevent success or harmful) affect organizational operations. However, a small error or mistake left uncorrected is perhaps one undetected as a result of a lack of control and may be magnified with the passage of time which would eventually harm the whole company.
-Today"s businesses must contend (face the difficulty) not only with an increasingly complex external environment, but with increasing internal complexity as well, particularly in highly diversified or rapidly growing organizations.
-A properly designed system of control can often allow a firm to enjoy considerable cost reductions. -Minimizing your costs will help you have more control.
-For control to be effective, it must be integrated with planning so that managers can readily compare actual results with planned projections.-The relationship between the two continues as a long-term cycle because managers make plans and then use control to evaluate the effectiveness of organizational activities relative to those plans.
-Consists of 4 basic steps: establishing performance standards, measuring performance, comparing performance against standards, and evaluation and corrective action.
-Def: The first step in the control process; targets set by management against which actual performance is compared at a future date.
-Second step in the control process is measuring actual performance in the context of the specific activities that management wishes to control.
-Third step in the control process involves comparing measured actual performance against the standards established in step one. Actual performance may match the performance standard exactly, or it may be higher or lower than the target.
-The final step of the control process, managers evaluate actual performance relative to standards and then take appropriate action. Performance evaluation calls not only for quantitative and diagnostic skills, but, also for subjective yet crucial decision making.
-When actual performance deviates significantly from performance standard, managers will ordinarily take steps to correct the discrepancy.
-The second option available when there is a discrepancy between actual performance and the performance standard is to change the initial performance standards.
-When performance standards are either met or nearly met, maintaining the status quo- the current course of action -may be the best response.
-The 3 levels of control are: Organizational, Operations, and Strategic.-There are many different forms of management control and they are: organizational, bureaucratic, clan, operations, financial, & nonfinancial.
-Def: A broad-based form of control that guides all organizational activities and oversees the overall functioning of the whole firm.
-Def: Attempts to control the firm"s overall functioning through formal, mechanistic structural arrangements; sometimes called hierarchical control.

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-Def: Seeks to regulate overall organizational functioning through reliance on informal, organic structural arrangements; also referred to as decentralized control.-This form of control tries to foster strong employee commitment by vigorously encouraging employee input and group participation.-Rather than setting strict behavioral standards as in bureaucratic control systems, clan control relies on self-control and informal group norms to effectively create a relaxed yet focused working environment.-Ex: Google has been recognized for its relatively informal, easy-going, clan-controlled atmosphere.
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