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assignments unit 3 part 3

Hydrogen and alkali metals

Alkali planet metals

Nobel gases

Hydrogen and Alkali Metals

Characteristics of group 1 of the regular table.

You are watching: The elements of which group are nonreactive

· recognize theelementsin team 1 of the regular table.

· describe why team 1elementsare an extremely reactive.

· List various other properties that alkalimetals.

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You probably think ofwateras a substance that have the right to put the end fires. Yet someelementsare for this reason reactive that they burn in water. In fact, they virtually explode in water. That’s what is keep going in the picture above. About 3 pounds of salt were added to water, and the result was this explosive reaction. Why is sodium such a reactive element? In this lesson you will uncover out.

The very first Group

Sodium (Na) is an facet in group 1 that the regular table that the elements. This group (column) that the table is shown below. It contains the nonmetal hydrogen (H) and also sixmetalsthat are calledalkali metals. Elements in the same team of the periodic table have the same number of valenceelectrons. These space the electrons in your outerenergy levelthat have the right to be involved in chemistry reactions. Valence electrons determine numerous of the nature of one element, so elements in the same team have similar properties. All the aspects in group 1 have actually just one valence electron. This renders them an extremely reactive.

Q:Why does having actually just one valence electron make group 1 elements an extremely reactive?

A:With simply one valence electron, group 1 aspects are “eager” to lose that electron. Act so enables them to accomplish a complete outerenergy leveland maximum stability.

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Reactivity of group 1 Elements

Hydrogen is a very reactive gas, and also the alkalimetalsare even more reactive. In fact, they are the many reactive metals and, along with the facets in team 17, space the many reactive of every elements. The reactivity that alkali metals rises from the top to the bottom of the group, so lithium (Li) is the least reactive alkali metal and also francium (Fr) is the most reactive. Since alkali metals are so reactive, lock are uncovered in nature just in combination with other elements. Lock often combine with team 17 elements, which are really “eager” to acquire an electron. In ~ the URL below, you deserve to watch a video clip that shows just just how reactive the alkali metals are.

http://youtu.be/uixxJtJPVXk(2:22)

Other nature of Alkali Metals

Besides being really reactive, alkali steels share a number of other properties.

· Alkali steels are allsolidsat roomtemperature.

· Alkali metals are low in density, and some of lock float onwater.

· Alkali steels are fairly soft. Some are even soft sufficient to reduced with a knife, prefer the sodium pictured in theFigurebelow.

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A Closer Look

Although all team 1 facets share certain properties, such together being an extremely reactive, they space not alike in every way. Three different group 1 facets are defined in much more detail below (Figuresbelow,below, andbelow). An alert the means in which they differ from one another.

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Hydrogen has the smallest, lightest atom of all elements. Pure hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas the is nontoxic however highly flammable. Hydrogen gas exists mainly as diatomic (“two-atom”) molecule (H2), as shown in the diagram on the right. Hydrogen is the most abundant aspect in the universe and also the third most abundant element on Earth, developing mainly in compound such as water.


Q:Why carry out you think hydrogen gas typically exists as diatomic molecules?

A:Each hydrogen atom has just one electron. When two hydrogenatomsbond together, they share a pair ofelectrons. The common electrons to fill their onlyenergy level, providing them the many stable setup of electrons.

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Potassium is a soft, silvery steel that ignites explosively in water. It conveniently loses the one valence electron to form positive potassium ions (K+), i beg your pardon are required by every living cells. Potassium is so important for plants the it is uncovered in practically all fertilizers, prefer the one presented here. Potassium is plentiful in Earth’s late in mineral such as feldspar.


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Francium has actually one the the largest, heaviest atom of all elements. Its one valence electron is far removed from the nucleus, together you can see in the atomic model on the right, so that is quickly removed indigenous the atom. Francium is radioactive and also quickly decays to form other aspects such together radium. This is why francium is incredibly rare in nature. Much less than an ounce of francium is current on planet at any type of given time.


Q:Francium decays too quickly to formcompoundswith various other elements. Which facets to you think it would certainly bond v if it could?

A:With one valence electron, francium would certainly bond through a halogen element in group 17, which has actually seven valenceelectronsand demands one more to fill its outer power level. Aspects in group 17 include fluorine and also chlorine.

Summary

· team 1 of the routine table contains hydrogen and the alkali metals.

· because they have just one valence electron, team 1 elements are very reactive. Together a result, lock are uncovered in nature only in combination with various other elements.

· Alkali metals are allsolidsat roomtemperature. Lock are reasonably soft and also low in density.

· native the peak to the bottom of team 1, the facets have heavier, an ext reactiveatoms.

Explore More

At the complying with URL, click “Group 1 data and graphs.” use the data in the team 1 table to to fill in the blanks below with eitherincreasesordecreases.

http://www.docbrown.info/page07/sblock.htm

From the height to the bottom of team 1, nature of the alkali metals adjust as follows:

1. Melting point __________.

2. Boiling allude __________.

3. Thickness __________.

4. Atom radius __________.

5. Number of electrons __________.

Review

1. What space alkali metals?

2. Why is hydrogen, a nonmetal, put in the same team as the alkali metals?

3. Describe why group 1 elements often formcompoundswith facets in team 17.

4. Compare and also contrast hydrogen and francium.

Alkaline planet Metals

Characteristics of group 2 the the periodic table.

· recognize alkaline Earthmetals.

· list properties the alkaline Earthmetals.

· describe why alkaline Earthmetalsare really reactive.

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Sparklers favor the one this girl is holding make festive enhancements to countless celebrations. You may use lock yourself. However watch out if you do due to the fact that their flames room really hot! The glowing white flames are developed when magnesium burns. Magnesium is a light- weight metal that burns at a an extremely hightemperature. Other provides of magnesium include flash photography, flares, and also fireworks. Magnesium is a metal in group 2 that the routine table, i m sorry you will certainly read about in this concept.  

The second Group

Barium (Ba) is just one of sixelementsin group 2 the the regular table, i m sorry is displayed below. Elements in this team are calledalkaline planet metals. These metals are silver or gray incolor. Castle are relatively soft and low in density, although not as soft and also lightweight as alkali metals. You have the right to watch a brief video clip introduction come the alkaline planet metals in ~ this URL:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DFQPnHkQlZM.

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Reactivity the Alkaline earth Metals

All alkaline planet metals have comparable properties because they all have actually two valenceelectrons. Lock readily offer up their 2 valence electron to accomplish a complete outerenergy level, i m sorry is the many stable arrangement of electrons. Together a result, lock are really reactive, although not rather as reactive together the alkali metals in team 1. Because that example, alkaline planet metals will react through coldwater, yet not explosively as alkali metals do. Since of their reactivity, alkaline earth metals never exist as puresubstancesin nature. Instead, they are always found linked with otherelements.

The reactivity the alkaline planet metals increases from the height to the bottom of the group. That’s due to the fact that theatomsget bigger from the top to the bottom, for this reason the valenceelectronsare farther indigenous the nucleus. As soon as valence electrons room farther from the nucleus, they are attracted much less strongly by the nucleus and much more easily removed from the atom. This provides the atom an ext reactive.

Q:Alkali metals have actually just one valence electron. Why room alkaline earth metals much less reactive 보다 alkali metals?

A:It takes much more energy to eliminate two valenceelectronsfrom one atom 보다 one valence electron. This makes alkaline planet metals through their 2 valence electrons much less reactive 보다 alkali steels with your one valence electron.

Examples that Alkaline planet Metals

For a much better understanding the alkaline earth metals, let’s take a closer look at at 2 of them: calcium (Ca) and strontium (Sr). Calcium is a soft, gray, nontoxic alkaline planet metal. Back pure calcium doesn’t exist in nature, calciumcompoundsare really common in Earth’s crust and also in seawater. Calcium is additionally the many abundant metal in the human body, emerging as calcium compound such together calcium phosphate and also calcium carbonate. These calcium link are found in bones and also make castle hard and strong. The skeleton that the average adult contains around a kilogram the calcium. Because calcium—like barium—absorbs x-rays, bones show up white in x-ray images. Calcium is vital component that a healthy human diet. An excellent food sources of calcium space pictured inFigurebelow.

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Q:What health difficulties might an outcome from a diet low in calcium?

A:Children that don’t get enough calcium while their bones are developing may build a deficiency disease called rickets, in which their bones are softer than normal and also become bent and stunted. Adults who don’t get sufficient calcium may build a problem called osteoporosis, in i beg your pardon the bones lose calcium and become weak and brittle. World with osteoporosis space at high risk of bone fractures.

Strontium is a silver-colored alkaline earth metal the is even softer 보다 calcium. Strontiumcompoundsare rather common and have a range of uses—from fireworks come cement to toothpaste. In fireworks, strontium compounds develop deep red explosions. In toothpaste, favor the one pictured in theFigurebelow, the link strontium chloride reduces tooth sensitivity.

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Summary

· elements in group 2 that the routine table are referred to as alkaline earth metals. They room silvery or gray incolor. They room also relatively soft and low in density.

· Alkaline planet metals are really reactive since they readily offer up their 2 valence electrons to accomplish a complete outerenergy level, i m sorry is the many stable arrangement of electrons. Reactivity increases from the height to the bottom the the group.

· instances of alkaline earth metals include calcium, i m sorry is necessary for strong bones, and strontium, i beg your pardon is used for do cement and also other products.

Explore More

At the complying with URL, observe just how four different alkaline earth metals react withwater. After ~ you clock the video, answer the questions below.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B2ZPrg9IVEo(0:16)

1. Watch the reactions in the video, and also then location the alkaline earth metals from many to the very least reactive v water.

2. What explains the distinctions in reactivity?

3. Suspect the reactivity of beryllium with water. Whereby would it fit in her ranking?

4. Whatsubstancesare produced in every reaction that you observed in the video?

Review

1. What room alkaline planet metals? What space their physical properties?

2. Why room alkaline planet metals really reactive?

3. Compare and contrast the reactivity the beryllium (Be) and also barium (Ba).

Noble Gases

Characteristics of team 18 of the routine table.

· recognize the noblegases.

· perform properties of noblegases.

· explain the nonreactivity the noblegasesand just how it is concerned theoctet rule.

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Okay, helium balloons space light, yet they’re not that light! This fanciful picture serves to make the allude that helium is just one of the lightestelements. Helium belongs come a team of facets called the noble gases.

What space Noble Gases?

Noble gasesare nonreactive, nonmetallicelementsin group 18 of the periodic table. As you deserve to see in the regular table inFigurebelow, noble gases encompass helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and also radon (Rn). Every noble gases are colorless and also odorless. They also have lowboilingpoints, explaining why they room gases at roomtemperature. Radon, at the bottom of the group, is radioactive, so it constantly decays come otherelements. For fantastic overview the the noble gases, clock the video clip at this URL:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jdzBRmLsUM8(4:53)

· to learn exactly how the noble gases were discovered, walk to this URL:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ceQMs30D16E.

· to explore details noble gases, click their icons in the regular table at this URL:http://www.ptable.com/.

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Q:Based on their position in the regular table (Figureabove), how plenty of valenceelectronsdo girlfriend think noble gases have?

A:The number of valenceelectronsstarts at one for aspects in team 1. That then rises by one from left to right across each duration (row) the the routine table for teams 1–2 and also 13–18. Therefore, noble gases have eight valence electrons.

Chemical nature of Noble Gases

Noble gases room the the very least reactive of all known elements. That’s due to the fact that with eight valenceelectrons, your outer power levels space full. The only exception is helium, which has just 2 electrons. But helium additionally has a full outerenergy level, because its only energy level (energy level 1) can hold a maximum of two electrons. A complete outer energy level is the many stable setup of electrons. As a result, noble gases can not become more stable by reaction with various other elements and gaining or losing valence electrons. Therefore, noble gases are rarely connected inchemical reactionsand almost never formcompoundswith various other elements.

Noble Gases and theOctet Rule

Because the noble gases space the the very least reactive of every elements, their eight valence electrons are offered as the traditional for nonreactivity and to describe how other aspects interact. This is stated as the octet (“group the eight”) rule. Follow to this rule,atomsreact come formcompoundsthat allow them to have actually a team of eight valence electrons prefer the noble gases. Because that example, salt (with one valence electron) reacts through chlorine (with seven valence electrons) to form the stable compound sodium chloride (table salt). In this reaction, salt donates an electron and also chlorine accepts it, offering each aspect an octet of valence electrons.

Some supplies of Noble Gases

Did you ever get helium balloons prefer those in the opening picture? uneven a balloon filled v air, a balloon filled with helium demands to it is in weighted down so the won’t float far — although friend don’t need to use an elephant!.

Q:Why walk a helium balloon float away if it’s not weighted down?

A:Heliumatomshave simply twoprotons, twoneutrons, and also two electrons, so they have actually less mass than any type of other atoms other than hydrogen. Together a result, helium is lighter 보다 air, explaining why a helium balloon floats up right into the air uneven weighted down.

Early incandescent irradiate bulbs, favor the one pictured in theFigurebelow, didn’t last very long. The filaments quickly melted out. Return air was pumped the end of the bulb, it wasn’t a finish vacuum. Oxygen in the tiny amount the air continuing to be inside the light pear reacted v the metal filament. This corroded the filament and also caused dark store on the glass. Pour it until it is full a irradiate bulb with argon gas avoids these problems. That’s why contemporary light bulbs room filled through argon.

Q:How go argon avoid the difficulties of early on light bulbs?

A:As a noble gas with eight electrons, argon doesn’t react through the steel in the filament. This protects the filament and also keeps the glass blub totally free of deposits.

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Noble gases are additionally used to fill the glass pipe of lighted indications like the one in theFigurebelow. Return noble gases are chemically nonreactive, your electrons have the right to be energized by sending out anelectric currentthrough them. As soon as this happens, the electrons run to a higherenergy level. As soon as the electrons go back to their original energy level, they provide off power as light. Various noble gases offer off light of various colors. Neon offers off reddish-orange light, like the indigenous “Open” in the sign below. Krypton provides off violet light and also xenon offers off blue light.

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Summary

· Noble gases are nonreactive, nonmetallic facets in group 18 of the regular table.

· Noble gases space the the very least reactive of every elements. That’s due to the fact that they have eight valence electrons, which to fill their outerenergy level. This is the most stable arrangement of electrons, therefore noble gases hardly ever react with various other elements and formcompounds.

· Theoctet rulestates thatatomsreact to form compounds that allow them to have actually eight valence electrons prefer the noble gases, which space the least reactive elements.

· Noble gases are supplied for balloons, light bulbs, and lighted signs.

Explore More

Watch the video clip about noble gases in ~ the adhering to URL, and also then price the concerns below.

http://www.open.edu/openlearn/science-maths-technology/science/chemistry/noble-gases

1. Compare and contrast the reactivity the the facets helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon.

2. To compare the thickness of these noble gases to the density of air.

3. Define how the fixed of noble gases transforms from the top to the bottom of group 18.

Review

1. What are noble gases?

2. Explain why noble gases room almost totally nonreactive.

See more: The Mummy Rise Of The Aztec, The Mummy: Rise Of The Aztec

3. What is the octet rule? exactly how is it related to noble gases?

4. Hydrogen (H) atoms have one electron and also exist together diatomic (“two-atom”) molecules (H2). Helium atoms have two electrons and exist only as single helium atoms. Describe why hydrogen and also helium different in this way.