The ar of artificial intelligence (AI) is concernedwith methods of occurring systems that display elements of smart behaviour. Thesesystems room designed to imitate the human being capabilities of thinking and also sensing.

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Characteristics of AI Systems

Characteristics the AI systems include:

1. Symbolic Processing

In AI applications, computers process symbols ratherthan number or letters. AI applications procedure strings of characters that representreal-world reality or concepts. Symbols deserve to be i ordered it in structures such as lists,hierarchies, or networks. This structures show how symbols relate to each other.

2. Nonalgorithmic Processing

Computer programs outside the AI domain are programmedalgorithms; the is, totally specified step-by-step procedures that specify a systems to theproblem. The action of a knowledge-based AI device depend to a much greater level on thesituation whereby it is used.

The ar of AI

Artificial knowledge is a science and technologybased on self-controls such as computer system science, biology, psychology, linguistics,mathematics, and engineering. The score of AI is to develop computers that deserve to think, see,hear, walk, talk and feel. A major thrust that AI is the breakthrough of computer system functionsnormally associated with human being intelligence, such together reasoning, learning, and problemsolving.

How the AI field Evolved

1950 Turing check - a device performs intelligently ifan interrogator making use of remote terminals cannot identify its responses indigenous those of ahuman.

Result: basic problem-solving methods

1960 AI established as research study field.

Result: Knowledge-based professional systems

1970 AI commercialization began

Result: Transaction processing and also decision supportsystems using AI.

1980 artificial neural networks

Result: resembling the interconnected neuronalstructures in the human being brain

1990 smart agents

Result: software application that performs assigned jobs on theusers behalf

11.2 capability of skilled Systems: general View

The many important used area the AI is the field ofexpert systems. An expert system (ES) is a knowledge-based system thatemploys knowledge about its application domain and uses an inferencing (reason) procedureto solve troubles that would certainly otherwise require human competence or expertise. The power ofexpert solution stems mainly from the details knowledge around a small domain save on computer inthe experienced system"s knowledge base.

It is essential to stress to students the expertsystems are assistants to decision makers and not substitutes because that them. Professional systems donot have human capabilities. They usage a understanding base that a particular domain and bringthat understanding to bear on the truth of the details situation in ~ hand. The knowledgebase of an ES likewise contains heuristic expertise - rules that thumb supplied byhuman experts who work-related in the domain.

11.3 Applications of experienced Systems

The test outlines some illustrative minicases that expertsystems applications. These include locations such as high-risk credit decisions, advertisingdecision making, and also manufacturing decisions.

Generic category of expert System Applications

Table 11.1 outlines the generic locations of ESapplications where ES can be applied. Application areas include classification, diagnosis,monitoring, process control, design, scheduling and also planning, and generation that options.

Classification - identify an object based top top statedcharacteristics

Diagnosis systems - infer failure or diseasefrom observable data

Monitoring - compare data from a continuallyobserved system to prescribe behaviour

Process regulate - regulate a physical process basedon monitoring

Design - configure a mechanism according tospecifications

Scheduling & plan - develop or modify aplan the action

Generation of alternatives - generate alternativesolutions to a problem

11.4 How skilled Systems Work

The stamin of an ES derives indigenous its knowledgebase - an organized collection that facts and heuristics around the system"s domain.An ES is built in a procedure known together knowledge engineering, throughout whichknowledge about the domain is gained from human experts and other resources by knowledgeengineers.

The accumulation of knowledge in understanding bases, fromwhich conclusions room to be attracted by the inference engine, is the hallmark of one expertsystem.

Knowledge Representation and also the expertise Base

The understanding base of one ES contains both factual andheuristic knowledge. Knowledge representation is the an approach used come organizethe understanding in the understanding base. Expertise bases need to represent notions as actions tobe take away under circumstances, causality, time, dependencies, goals, and other higher-levelconcepts.

Several methods of expertise representation deserve to bedrawn upon. Two of these techniques include:

1. Frame-based systems

- room employed for structure very powerful ESs. A framespecifies the attributes of a complicated object and frames for miscellaneous object types havespecified relationships.

2. Manufacturing rules

- room the many common an approach of knowledgerepresentation used in business. Rule-based expert systems room expertsystems in which the expertise is represented by manufacturing rules.

A production rule, or simply a rule, consists of one IFpart (a problem or premise) and a THEN part (an activity or conclusion). IF condition THENaction (conclusion).

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The explanation facility defines how thesystem landed on the recommendation. Depending on the tool offered to carry out the expertsystem, the explanation might be one of two people in a organic language or simply a listing that rulenumbers.

Inference Engine

The inference engine:

1. Combine the facts of a certain case withthe knowledge contained in the knowledge base come come up with a recommendation. In arule-based professional system, the inference engine controls the bespeak in i beg your pardon productionrules are applied (Afired