The Wilson Administration

During his presidency (1913–1921), Woodrow Wilson happen a Progressive autonomous legislative agenda and played a significant role in world War I.

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Learning Objectives

Summarize Woodrow Wilson’s Progressive democratic agenda and his involvement in world War I

Key Takeaways

Key PointsIn 1913, Woodrow Wilson signed the federal Reserve Act, which developed the commonwealth Reserve device of banking. He also passed antitrust law (including the Clayton Antitrust Act), lower tariffs, and also created a federal earnings tax.In 1916, Wilson won the assistance of unions v the Adamson Act, which imposed an eight-hour workday in the railroad industry and also prevented a strike native shutting down the nation’s railways.In international affairs, Wilson observed his role as an international peacekeeper, unsuccessfully attempting come mediate peace in the European problem from 1914 come 1916.Wilson’s check out of the worldwide system, which came to be called ” Wilsonianism,” posits one idealistic check out of the world and also calls for the United states to fight for democracy around the globe.Wilson guided a plan of “acquiescing” come the 1917 Balfour declaration by the brothers government, thereby expressing sympathy because that Zionism—the reason of creating a Jewish homeland in Palestine—without joining brother in proactively supporting it.Key TermsLeague that Nations: An global organization started as a an outcome of the contract of Versailles, which finished the civilization War I. Suggest by Wilson, the goals included disarmament, avoiding war through collective security, stable disputes in between countries through negotiation, diplomacy, and improving worldwide quality that life. The unified States never ever joined the league of Nations, regardless of Wilson’s crucial role in that creation.Treaty of Versailles: one of the tranquility treaties that brought an finish to people War I. Signed on June 28, 1919, it finished hostilities between Germany and also the allied powers exactly five year after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.Fourteen Points: A set of objectives laid out in a decided by U.S. Chairman Woodrow Wilson to a share session of congress on January 8, 1918. The resolve was to plan to assure the nation that the great War was being fought for a moral cause and for postwar peace in Europe.

Wilson’s an initial Term (1913–1917): financial Issues

Woodrow Wilson spent much of his first-term persuading a democratic Congress to happen Progressive economic reforms, including the federal Reserve Act, the Underwood Tariff, the Federal profession Commission, the Clayton Antitrust Act, and the Adamson Act. Part argue that the efforts of few presidents have actually equaled those of Wilson and that his legislative branch agenda remained unmatched till the new Deal.

Wilson’s very first presidential inauguration: On march 4, 1913, Woodrow Wilson take it the oath that office in Washington, D.C., because that his first term as president.

In late 1913, Wilson secured i of the commonwealth Reserve Act, an action of congress that created the federal Reserve System, the central banking system of the unified States, and also granted the the legal government to issue currency. To create the commonwealth Reserve System, Wilson had actually to negotiate a compromise between conservative republic (led by senator Nelson W. Aldrich), and the an effective left soup of the autonomous Party (led by Secretary the State william Jennings Bryan). Wilson’s plan passed in December 1913, and also the brand-new system began operations in 1915. A complicated business-government partnership that to today dominates the jae won world, the federal Reserve mechanism played a significant role in financing the Allied and also American war efforts throughout the two civilization wars.

Another landmark of his first term to be Wilson’s efficient mobilization of windy opinion behind tariff changes, beginning in 1913 through passage that the Revenue act (better known as the “Underwood Tariff”) in i m sorry revenue lost by reduced tariffs was changed by a new federal income tax. Wilson likewise pursued a brand-new approach come encouraging competition through the Federal profession Commission. That led the development of the Clayton Antitrust action of 1914, outlawing business practices such as price discrimination and also price fixing, and expanding ahead antitrust laws by holding separation, personal, instance corporate policemans responsible if their service providers violated the laws. Much more importantly, the act set clear guidelines because that corporations that had previously benefited from legal uncertainties.

In 1916, under danger of a nationwide railroad strike, Wilson authorized the Adamson Act. This impede a to win by boosting wages and cutting working hours of railroad employees. It also helped Wilson acquire union support for his reelection, and notably, because that his agenda that later on served together a basis because that the brand-new Deal under president Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Wilson’s 2nd Term (1917–1921): policies of War

Wilson was narrowly reelected in 1916, and also his 2nd term start in 1917 focused—domestically and also in international policy—on worries related to civilization War I. Prior to his reelection, Wilson unsuccessfully attempted come mediate peace in between the belligerent europe powers. He based his campaign about the slogan, “He retained us the end of war,” however U.S. Neutrality was challenged in early on 1917 when Germany started unrestricted submarine warfare against shipping, including against American vessels regardless of repeated solid warnings, and also tried come enlist Mexico together an ally. In April 1917, Wilson asked conference to explain war.

Wilson concentrated on wartime diplomacy and financial considerations, leaving the details of battle primarily in the hand of the army. ~ above the home front in 1917, he began the very first U.S. Draft since the American polite War, obtained billions the dollars in funding through the newly established Federal to make reservation Bank and also Liberty Bonds, set up the War industries Board, advocated labor union cooperation, supervised agriculture and food manufacturing through the bar Act, took regulate of the railroads, and suppressed antiwar movements.

In the late stages the the conflict, Wilson personally looked after negotiations v Germany, including the armistice. In 1918, that issued his Fourteen Points, an international relations blueprint intended come avoid an additional war. That attended the 1919 Paris peace Conference to aid create the organization of Nations and also shape the treaty of Versailles, offering special fist to establishing new nations native the remains of defunct empires.

Wilson’s brand that internationalism infused with morality, guided through his deep Presbyterian faith, happened known as “Wilsonianism.” This brand of foreign policy calls for the United claims to connect in world affairs by pushing and also sometimes fighting because that democracy, and remains a contentious position come this day. For his sponsorship that the league of Nations, Wilson obtained the 1919 Nobel tranquility Prize; the Senate, however, garbage the contract of Versailles and also the united States never joined the League. In 1920, Republicans winner in a landslide victory largely by denouncing Wilson’s policies.

Wilson and Latin America

Woodrow Wilson ongoing the U.S. Plan of intervening in the work of Latin American nations, consisting of Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Panama, Nicaragua, and also Mexico.

Learning Objectives

Summarize Woodrow Wilson’s policy in Latin America, including the Ypiranga Incident, the border clashes between the united States and also Mexico, and also the anti-Hispanic and also corporate-driven motivations for intervening in the mexican Revolution

Key Takeaways

Key PointsBetween 1914 and 1918, the United states intervened in Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Panama, Nicaragua, and also Mexico.The Byran-Chamorro contract of 1914 authorized the United states to usage military pressure to stabilize the Nicaraguan government and gave America manage over Nicaraguan foreign debt. American troops lived in Haiti in between 1915 and 1934. Wilson also ordered the occupation that the Dominican Republic in 1916, working v wealthy Dominican landowners to brutally suppress peasant resistance.The American decision to intervene in the Mexican revolution stemmed indigenous anti-Hispanic U.S. Sentiments and also the huge amount of American business investments in the mexico economy. Return Wilson did not declare battle on Mexico, in retaliation for Pancho Villa’s raid in new Mexico, in 1916, Wilson sent out U.S. Forces under the manage of basic John Pershing throughout the mexican border to catch Villa.Key TermsZimmermann Telegram: A 1917 diplomatic proposal from Germany to Mexico to make war against the joined States. Intercepted and also decoded by brother intelligence, the telegram outraged the American public and helped generate assistance for the U.S. Declaration of battle on Germany in April that 1917.Banana Wars: A collection of occupations, police actions, and interventions involving the United claims in central America and also the Caribbean. Beginning in 1898, the united States conducted military operations and also occupations in Panama, Honduras, Nicaragua, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. This period ended v the tap the money of troops from Haiti and also the initiation of president Franklin D. Roosevelt’s great Neighbor plan in 1934.John J. Pershing: A basic officer in the U.S. Military who led the American Expeditionary forces in people War I. Pershing is the only human to be advocated in his own life time to the highest army rank ever before held: general of the Armies.gavilleros: Dispossessed peasants that formed equipped bands to wage a guerrilla war against occupation by U.S. Army forces.Francisco “Pancho” Villa: José Doroteo Arango Arámbula (June 5, 1878–July 20, 1923); among the most prominent Mexican Revolutionary generals that led raids right into American territory.

In principle, Woodrow Wilson want to avoid the aggressive view Theodore Roosevelt had taken toward Latin America. He negotiated a treaty v Colombia in i beg your pardon the United says apologized for its duty in the Panama change of 1903–1904. Wilson, however, did no shrink from intervention on behalf of American values, speak in 1913, “I am going come teach the south American republics to elect an excellent men.” in between 1914 and 1918, the United states intervened in Latin America, an especially in Mexico, Haiti, Cuba, and Panama.

Roosevelt on mountain Juan Hill (1898): chairman Wilson test a kinder international policy toward Latin America 보다 his predecessor, Theodore Roosevelt; however, in practice, their policies were very similar.

Economic concerns primarily drove these conflicts, well-known as “Banana Wars” as result of the connections between interventions and also American commercial interests in the region. The United says also advanced its political interests and also sphere the influence, including control of the American-built Panama Canal, which to be critically vital to global trade and naval power.

Haiti and also the Dominican Republic

American troops lived in Haiti between 1915 and 1934, forcing the Haitian legislature to select a presidential candidate selected by Wilson.

In the Dominican Republic, Wilson bespeak an American army occupation shortly after the resignation of chairman Juan Isidro Jimenes Pereyra in 1916. The U.S. Military operated in concert v wealthy Dominican landowners come suppress the Gavilleros, a guerrilla force notorious because that its brutality towards resisters, fighting the occupation the lasted till 1924.

Occupation of the Dominican Republic: Under Wilson’s direction, U.S. Pressures occupied the Dominican Republic. U.S. Marines in the Dominican Republic in 1916 are pictured here.

Nicaragua and the Bryan-Chamorro Treaty

From 1912 come 1925, the unified States had amicable relations with the Nicaraguan government as result of friendly Conservative Party presidents such together Diego Manuel Chamorro. In exchange for political concessions, the joined States listed the necessary military stamin to certain the Nicaraguan government internal stability. This brought about the Bryan-Chamorro Treaty, signed on respectable 5, 1914, throughout the Taft administration, through formal ratification on June 19, 1916, during Wilson’s presidency.

The contract was named after the major negotiators, U.S. Secretary the State wilhelm Jennings Bryan and then-General Emiliano Chamorro representing the Nicaraguan government. Under the terms of the treaty, America obtained the civil liberties to any type of canal constructed in Nicaragua in perpetuity, a renewable 99-year alternative to establish a naval base in the Gulf of Fonseca, and a renewable 99-year lease to the an excellent and little Corn archipelago in the Caribbean. Nicaragua subsequently obtained $3 million and ceded regulate of Nicaraguan international debt to the joined States. This setup lasted till the two countries abolished the treaty and its provisions on July 14, 1970.

The Mexican revolution and U.S. Intervention

The United claims intervened in Mexico transparent the Mexican change (1910–1920) to protect American national security and also economic interests.

The Mexican revolution was a significant armed battle that started in 1910 v an uprising led through Francisco I. Madero versus longtime autocrat Porfirio Díaz and also lasted until around 1920. End time, the revolution changed from a revolt against the developed order come a multisided civil war, through an end coming right into sight only after the mexico Constitution to be drafted in 1917.

The relationship between Mexico and the united States currently was turbulent. Because that economic and political reasons, the American government normally supported those who populated Mexican seat of power, legitimately or not. Before Wilson’s inauguration, the U.S. Military worked out for threatening action against Mexico if the lives and also property the Americans living in the country were endangered. President wilhelm Howard Taft amassed troops top top the border, but did not enable them to intervene in the mexico Revolution, a decision protest by Congress.

There were two primary connected motives for intervention. There to be a pervasive anti-Hispanic belief that justification U.S. Armed forces imposition of stimulate on the mexico “chaos.” This was sustained by push from American corporations that feared mexican political restructuring would certainly jeopardize their service interests.

At the beginning of the twenty century, United states citizens and also corporations owned around 27 percent of mexico territory. By 1910, U.S. Investment in mexican land, railroads, mines, factories, and other ventures had additional increased. The revolution hurt the mexican economy and also pushed Wilson to intervene in stimulate to defend American interests.

Ypiranga Intervention and the Tampico Affair

The very first time the United states sent troops into Mexico during the revolution was in response to the 1914 Ypiranga Incident. Once U.S. Intelligence agents uncovered that the German seller ship Ypiranga was carrying illegal arms to mexico President Huerta, Wilson bespeak troops come the harbor of Veracruz to protect against the delivery from docking, leading to a skirmish v Huerta’s troops. However the Ypiranga regulated to dock at an additional port, infuriating Wilson.

Additionally, mexican officials in the harbor of Tampico, Tamaulipas, arrested a group of U.S. Sailors on April 9, 1914, consisting of at the very least one taken indigenous his ship, and also thus from U.S. Territory. After ~ failed talks, the U.S. Navy bombarded Veracruz and also occupied the port for seven months. Part argue the Wilson’s true an inspiration was to fall Huerta, whom he refused to recognize as Mexico’s leader. The Tampico Affair further destabilized his regime and encouraged the rebels. U.S. Troops at some point left mexican soil, but the incident worsened currently tense relations.

Pancho Villa and Border Clashes

An increasing variety of U.S.-Mexico border incidents early on in 1916 culminated in an invasion of American territory on in march 8, 1916, by Francisco “Pancho” Villa and his band of 500 come 1,000 men, who burned military barracks and also robbed stores in Columbus, brand-new Mexico. U.S. Pressures repulsed the attack, but 14 soldiers and also 10 civilians were killed, and Villa ended up being the personification that mindless mexican violence and also banditry.


General Francisco Pancho Villa: Pancho Villa, 2nd from the right, through his employee in 1913. Villa was crucial leader during the mexican Revolution.

In response, chairman Wilson sent forces commanded by general John J. Pershing right into Mexico to capture Villa. Pershing’s campaign consisted mostly of dozens of skirmishes with tiny bands the insurgents and Mexican military units. Despite Pershing’s efforts, Villa to be deeply entrenched in the mountains of north Mexico and also knew the terrain as well well to be captured. Pershing was forced to abandon the mission and return to the united States. Troops to be withdrawn from Mexico by February 1917, however not prior to virtually the entire U.S. Regular military became involved, with many of the national Guard federalized and also concentrated on the border prior to the end of the affair.


John J. Pershing: Portrait of man J. Pershing, who led the expedition into Mexico in pursuit of Pancho Villa.

These events further damaged an currently strained relationship and also caused anti-American sentiment in Mexico to prosper stronger, v minor clashes proceeding along the border indigenous 1917 come 1919. Return the Zimmermann Telegram affair of January 1917 did not lead to a straight U.S. Intervention, it likewise exacerbated tensions in between the joined States and Mexico. Battle would probably have been declared between the two nations if not for the an important situation in Europe.

The europe Crisis

Conflict started when a Serb conference assassinated the Austro-Hungarian archduke; war easily spread throughout Europe and affected the world.

Learning Objectives

Describe the provocation that war between Austria-Hungary and also Serbia, and also the resulting partnerships that formed throughout Europe

Key Takeaways

Key PointsAfter the assassination the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Austria-Hungary ceded an deliberately unacceptable ultimatum to Serbia in hopes of sparking a conflict. Once Serbia refused the ultimatum, Austria-Hungary declared war.The hostilities in between Austria-Hungary and also Serbia split Europe right into fighting partnerships known as the ” central Powers ” (Austria-Hungary, Germany, Italy) and also the “Allies” (France, Britain, and also Russia). These alliances were based upon treaties (some secret), and shifted over the food of the war.Russia pertained to the aid of the Serbs (until the Bolshevik transformation at home finished Russia’s involvement), and Germany allied with Austria-Hungary. Italy joined through Germany and also Austria-Hungary ~ the war started but later adjusted sides.France and Britain claimed war in component because that German refuse to respect Belgium’s neutrality.Key TermsJuly Crisis: A diplomatic boiling point among the major powers the Europe in the summer that 1914. Automatically after the assassination the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, a collection of diplomatic maneuverings and failed talks caused an ultimatum native Austria-Hungary to Serbia and subsequently come war.Franz Ferdinand: Franz Ferdinand (December 18, 1863–June 28, 1914) was an archduke and also from 1889 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne. His assassination in Sarajevo through Serb nationalists precipitated Austria-Hungary’s declaration of war versus Serbia. This caused the main Powers (Austria-Hungary, Germany, Italy) and the Allies (Serbia, Russia, France, and also Britain) to take sides versus each other in what came to be World war I.

In the early component of the twenty century, Europe was still a continent under the manage of competing empires that preserved a balance that power with a series of fluctuating treaties known as the “Concert the Europe.” Shortly before the outbreak of human being War I, these empires consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Kingdom the Italy in an association recognized as the “Triple Alliance”; Russia, France, and the united kingdom of good Britain and Ireland made up the rival “Triple Entente.” in ~ the time, the Ottoman realm maintained different power ~ above the southeast leaf of Europe in Turkey.

Assassination and Diplomatic Crisis

Austria-Hungary to be a patchwork of number of nationalities—including Czechs, Poles, Slovaks, Romanians, Slovenians, Croats, and Serbs—ruled through the Habsburg dynasty, who were resented by countless nationalists that the smaller nations within the empire. In the summer of 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria to be on a expedition to the city of Sarajevo in Bosnia, the region of the realm bordering Serbia. It to be here, ~ above June 28, 1914, that Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb student and also member of the radical Young Bosnia group, assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne.

Archduke Franz Ferdinand: Portrait of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, who assassination set off a series of battle declarations throughout Europe, ultimately leading to world War I.

Ferdinand’s death sparked a month of diplomatic maneuvering amongst Austria-Hungary, Germany, Russia, France, and also Britain dubbed the “July Crisis.” hope to to like Serb nationalism and also end Serbian interference in Bosnia, Austria-Hungary ceded the “July Ultimatum,” a collection of 10 deliberately unacceptable demands meant to provoke a war with Serbia. As soon as Serbia i agreeed to only 8 of the 10 terms, Austria-Hungary claimed war top top July 28, 1914.

Choosing Sides

In solution to the declaration, number of alliances—formed through treaties created in previous decades were invoked, and within weeks, the significant powers to be at war; via colonies, the problem soon spread about the world. Russia pledged to help its longtime Serb protégés, unwilling to offer up influence among its fellow ethnic Slavic civilization in Austrian-Hungary’s southern Balkan region. (Russia would eventually withdraw from the war due to an interior uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution.)

Austria-Hungary appealed to Germany, who Emperor Wilhelm II offered a “blank check” providing any support crucial to win the war. The German empire mobilized its troops on July 30, 1914, ready to use the “Schlieffen Plan,” a quick, substantial invasion that France meant to demolish that army. The plan, however, compelled German troops to pass through the neutral country of Belgium ~ above their way to north France. As soon as Belgium refused the passage, Germany violated Belgian neutrality by cross its region to strike the French forces that had mobilized to fulfill the invaders. Belgium appealed to the united Kingdom, and also the British house of Commons intimidated war unless Germany withdrew from Belgium. The Germans refused, and the uk joined the fight alongside France. Meanwhile, Germany also had rotate its attention eastern by heralding war on Russia, bringing every one of the significant powers into play.

Solidifying Alliances

Thus, Europe was divided into two warring camps: the Allies, based upon the Triple Entente the the joined Kingdom, France, and Russia; and the central Powers, based on the Triple Alliance the Germany, Austria Hungary, and also Italy. Together Austria-Hungary had initiated the offensive, Italy walk not automatically enter the war. These partnerships both reorganized—Italy later combated for the Allies—and expanded as an ext nations gone into the conflict, either v treaties with surrounding powers such together Bulgaria and also the ottoman Empire, or because of their condition as swarms of the assorted European powers.

The main Powers: This WWI postcard shows central Powers emperors of Germany (Prussia), Austria-Hungary, the footrest Empire, and also Bulgaria.

Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe presidential election of 1916 occurred at a time when most Americans, while sustaining the allied forces, want to continue to be neutral in the continuous European conflict. Woodrow Wilson tapped into this sentiment through the campaign slogan, “He preserved us out of war.”The Republican Party nominated supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes. Hughes, a moderate, was liked for his appeal to both conservative and Progressive republic in the hope that he might heal the party’s 1912 split that had actually resulted in development of the steady Party. The Progressives tried to launch a third-party presidential bid however collapsed when the party’s founder, Theodore Roosevelt, refuse its nomination and threw his support behind Hughes.Hughes and the republicans campaigned versus Wilson’s pacifism, saying for a regime of higher mobilization and also preparedness for the european war, while attack Wilson’s intervention in the Mexican civil War.Wilson directly won, ending up being the very first Democrat since Andrew Jackson to serve a 2nd presidential term.Key TermsProgressive Party: an American political party formed in 1912. Also known as the “Bull Moose Party,” it was the an outcome of a split in the Republican Party between President Theodore Roosevelt and his successor, President william Howard Taft.Woodrow Wilson: (Dec. 28, 1856–Feb. 3, 1924) one American academic and democratic politician. He to be president that Princeton University and the 34th governor of new Jersey before being elected the 28th chairman of the united States, serving 2 terms indigenous 1913 to 1921.Charles E. Hughes: (Apr. 11, 1862–Aug. 27, 1948) one American professor, judge, and politician. He served as the 36th branch of brand-new York, combine justice that the U.S. Supreme Court, U.S. Secretary that state, judge on the irreversible Court of worldwide Justice, and also the 11th chef justice the the united States. The Republican candidate in the 1916 U.S. Presidential election, Hughes shed to Woodrow Wilson.


The U.S. Presidential choice of 1916, i m sorry pitted incumbent democratic President Woodrow Wilson versus Republican supreme Court justice Charles Evans Hughes, took location while Europe to be embroiled in people War I. Public emotion in America favored the British and French forces, known as the Allies, due to the harsh therapy of civilians through the German Army, which invaded and also occupied parts of Belgium and northern France. Regardless of this sympathy for the Allies, many American voters want to remain neutral and avoid straight involvement in the conflict.

Conventions and also Nominations


A significant goal that the 1916 Republican national Convention in Chicago indigenous June 7 come June 10 was to cure the bitter split within the party that arisen during the 1912 presidential campaign. Theodore Roosevelt had split from the GOP and formed his very own group, the progressive Party, i beg your pardon attracted many of the for free Republicans. William Howard Taft, the incumbent president and also Roosevelt’s successor, winner the 1912 Republican nomination. The split with the Progressives, however, divided the Republican vote and also gave a rise to Democrat Woodrow Wilson, who defeated Taft for the presidency in 1912.

Several candidates completed for the 1916 Republican nomination, however the party’s bosses wanted a moderate who would be acceptable to both conservative and also liberal factions. Castle turned to can be fried Court justice Charles E. Hughes, who had actually served top top the court because 1910 and also thus had actually the advantage of not having publicly spoken about political problems in six years. Hughes was the just Supreme Court righteousness to it is in nominated because that president by a major political party and also was joined on the ticket by previous Vice president Charles W. Fairbanks, who served under Roosevelt.


The 1916 autonomous National Convention was held in St. Louis native June 14 to June 16. Given Wilson’s enormous popularity in ~ the party, he to be overwhelmingly renominated. Evil President thomas R. Marshall was likewise renominated through no opposition.


The steady Party renominated previous President Theodore Roosevelt, but he turned down the nomination because that both an individual and political reasons. Roosevelt had occurred a strong dislike for President Wilson, whom he believed was permitting Germany and other warring European countries to “bully” the united States. Convinced that to run again ~ above a third-party ticket would offer the choice to Wilson and also the Democrats, he offered his assistance to the Republican Hughes.

After Roosevelt’s refusal to run, the steady Party easily fell apart. Most of that is members went back to the Republican Party, although a considerable minority sustained Wilson because that his efforts to keep the United says out of human being War I.


The Democrats built their campaign around the slogan, “He retained Us the end of War,” play on America’s desire because that neutrality through highlighting Wilson’s attempts to broker peace in between the european nations throughout his first term in office. Hughes insisted top top downplaying the battle issue, yet still supported a program of greater mobilization and preparedness. A Republican success would likely mean war v the central Powers, led through Germany, and with Mexico.

Wilson had properly pressured the Germans to suspend unrestricted submarine warfare, do it daunting for Hughes to protest Wilson’s peace platform. Hughes struck Wilson for his support of various “pro-labor” laws, such together limiting the workday come eight hours, top top the grounds that they were harmful to company interests. His criticisms gained tiny traction, however, especially among factory workers.

Election Result

The result was especially close and also the outcome was in doubt for number of days. The electoral vote was among the the next in American history. V 266 votes needed to win, Wilson take it 30 claims for 277 electoral votes, when Hughes won 18 states and 254 electoral votes. Wilson’s peace position was likely an important in winning the western states; the vital proved to be California, which Wilson winner by just 3,800 votes out of almost a million ballots cast. In the popular vote, Wilson’s command was at some point larger, yet extremely narrow. Wilson’s popular vote margin that 3.1 percent remained the the smallest attained by a victorious sit president until 2004.


Electoral university voting results in the presidential election of 1916: In this presidential election outcomes map, red denotes claims won by Hughes/Fairbanks, and blue denotes says won through Wilson/Marshall. Numbers indicate the electoral votes allotted to each state.

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The total variety of popular votes actors in 1916 surpassed that of 1912 through 3.5 million. The large total shown the public’s heightened interest in the campaign, in component due come states’ expansion of suffrage come women.