Turbine inlet temperatures exceeding 1400 °C are achieved by using Ni-based alloys, single crystal blades, and innovative convective and also film cooling as well as ceramic blade coating.

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From: Membrane Reactors for power Applications and basic Chemical Production, 2015

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Performance evaluate of a Biomass-Fired Regenerative ORC device Through Energy and also Exergy Analyses


Ozum Calli, ... Huseyin Gunerhan, in Exergetic, Energetic and Environmental Dimensions, 2018

4.2.1 sport of wind turbine Inlet Temperature


The generator inlet temperature (TIT) is vital operating parameter the affects the power of the integrated system. The impact of the TIT ~ above the electrical and also exergy efficiencies to be investigated; the outcomes are displayed in Fig. 3A. As the TIT increased, the net power output increased. As a result, the electrical and also exergy efficiencies increased. Because heat transferred to the ORC is no a duty of the TIT for this study, as displayed in Fig. 3B, the tendency of the electrical and also exergetic efficiencies mainly relied on that of the net strength output.



Figure 3. Readjust in (A) efficiency (Eff.) and (B) energy transfer v the generator inlet temperature. ORC, necessary Rankine cycle.


To know the factor for the trend of the change in exergy performance of the in its entirety system presented in Fig. 3A, the exergy destruction rates and efficiencies of every component that the mechanism were calculated. In this way, the materials that had actually the greatest exergy damage rate (i.e., irreversibility rate) and lowest exergetic performance were found. Hence, the components that had an ext potential to boost the performance of the overall system to be identified. Figs. 4 and 5 show that the main reason because that the rise in exergy effectiveness with rise in TIT was the comparatively greater increase in the exergy performance of the heat exchanger or to decrease in the exergy destruction rate. It deserve to be seen from these figures that for this component, together the temperature boosted from 377 come 470K, the exergy damage rate lessened by 25%. This decrease deserve to be attributed come the rise in the change of the molar-specific exergy readjust of the functioning fluid in between the inlet and outlet of the heat exchanger. The exergy devastation rate to decrease in the condenser was the second far-reaching reason because that the boost in the exergetic power of the in its entirety system. The exergy damage rate in this component greatly decreased since of the diminish in the heat transfer rate from the working fluid to the cooling water (i.e., the enthalpy the state 6 lessened whereas the enthalpy of state 7 did not readjust with the wind turbine inlet temperature). ~ above the other hand, these figures show that the exergy devastation rate that the regenerator and also the turbine raised from 0.2428 come 1.836 kW and from 2.97 come 3.5 kW, respectively, in this temperature range. Although there was an increase in the exergy destruction rate in this components, the exergy efficiency of the overall system increased as the complete exergy damage rate decreased more than total exergy destruction rate increased. The exergy destruction rate and exergy efficiency of the pump and also burner did not readjust because the inlet and outlet conditions of their manage volumes walk not adjust with respect come the turbine inlet temperature in this study; thus these contents do not have actually an result on the exergetic performance of the combined system.




Figure 5. Adjust in exergy destruction ratio that (A) heat exchanger and also burner, and (B) pump, turbine, condenser, and regenerator v the generator inlet temperature.


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Engine crank angle addressed turbocharger generator performance measurements by contactless pillar torque detection


B. Lüddecke, ... M. Bargende, in 11th global Conference top top Turbochargers and also Turbocharging, 2014

4 hot GAS was standing MEASUREMENTS

Prior come engine testing, a in-depth experimental study on the hot gas stand was elaborated under stable state border conditions.

The generator inlet temperature T3 was differed in six measures (40, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 °C) and also for every instance several rate lines have been recorded. The temperature the coolant and lubrication were set to 30 °C and also 35 °C, respectively, to store the heat loading because that the measuring mechanism low. This leads to greater values of bearing friction, the course. However, together these losses space modelled and corrected based on accessible bearing friction measure up data, this has actually no implication on the relevance and accuracy the the data. The supply push of the lubrication was set to a constant value that 4 bars absolute.


In Figure 3 one excerpt of the measured wind turbine torque for T3 = 600 °C is plotted against the full to static press ratio. The red curves with squared symbols stand for the measure “raw” torque. As mentioned above, the speak is measured in between the two radial bearings, Figure 2. Hence, to assess the equivalent aerodynamic talk – that is basically the among interest – the friction speak of one radial bearing needs to be added to the measure up torque, eq. (1).



Based on obtainable experimental data, a polynomial duty (of the rotor speed) has been employed to account for the journal friction torque. The result is given by the black curves with white circles in Figure 3. Obviously, the correction causes an offset from the measure value, if the slope stays constant.

Additionally, torque data native CFD results are displayed as hard blue curves. Obviously, for every speed line, the measure data display a direct dependency of turbine rotor torque matches stage press ratio within the measure range. This is to be expected and has likewise been reported by numerous researchers, to compare e.g. <3>, <4>, <5>. The CFD data additionally show a fairly linear trend yet as the computed range is much broader than the measure one, smooth changes in the slope can be seen, if very low and an extremely high press ratios room compared. The reason for this is thought to be related to the strongly transforming flow regimes and mach numbers, if for continuous rotor rate the pressure ratio is differed in a vast range. However, it can be stated that measured, friction corrected and also computed data enhance well.

Furthermore, the measured data and the CFD outcomes in specific show the the wind turbine rotor speak would become zero far before the push ratio equates to one. This is related to the centrifugal force ar of the rotor (compare <6>) and also is essential for the translate of the engine results displayed later.


The easily accessible recorded data for different rotor speeds and turbine inlet temperatures have been to work to obtain a broad map of the turbine stage in regards to blade rate ratio and also pressure ratio, Figure 4, top. The data clues of the measured rate lines are marked with various symbols, equivalent to the turbine inlet temperature. In the center of Figure 4, the matching turbine stage performance – based on measured pillar torque - is plotted. The white circles represent specifically the data points native the plot at the top, which have been offered to interpolate a contour of turbine stage efficiency. The iso-lines have actually a street of one every cent efficiency. The plot mirrors the performance after journal bearing friction mediate (eq. (1)) as demonstrated in Figure 3 and hence represents aerodynamic efficiency. At Figure 4, bottom, a edge plot based upon CFD data is shown. The white circles accordingly mark the place of the numerical outcomes that the plot is based on. The comparison in between the (bearing friction corrected) measured data and CFD outcomes shows good agreement. The absolute level of efficiency though is still highest for the computed data.



Figure 4. Turbine stage performance contour plots based upon measured torque and radial bearing friction corrected (top) and comparison with CFD data (bottom)


This can be deadline to various minor and partly superimposed influences. These room for instance: geometry simplifications and turbulence modelling for the number results; deviation of actual geometry indigenous nominal shape as well as the inevitable uncertainties in ~ an experimental data set. The is additionally conceivable the the radial bearing friction model does not perfectly stand for the developing bearing friction because that all warm gas temperatures and also all speed lines together the version is based on a limited set of experimental data.

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However, the data shown above give a really high level of confidence right into the presented an approach for secure state conditions.