Anatomy the a Fault

Faults are the places in the crust where brittle deformation wake up as two blocks that rocks move relative to one another. The aircraft along which motion occurs is referred to as the fault plane.  If it is visible at the surface, the is dubbed a error scarp (Figure 13).

You are watching: Normal faulting occurs when the hanging wall moves upward relative to the footwall.

Normal and reverse faults display vertical, also known as dip-slip, motion. Dip-slip motion is composed of family member up-and-down motion along a dipping fault between two blocks, the hanging wall and footwall. In a dip-slip system, the footwall is listed below the fault plane and the hanging wall is over the fault plane. A an excellent way to remember this is to imagine a mine tunnel running follow me a fault; the hanging wall would be wherein a miner would certainly hang a lantern and also the footwall would be in ~ the miner’s feet.

Figure 13 (Click on link): Hanging wall, footwall, and also scarp of a typical fault. Https://skfb.ly/6A7xJ

Types that Faults

There room three main varieties of faults: normal faults, reverse faults, and also transform or strike-slip faults.

Normal Faults

In normal faults, the hanging wall moves downward relative to the footwall (Figure 13 and also Figure 14). This motion deserve to be identified by tracing the counter of the beds in a vertical activity in a block diagram. In map view, the hanging wall rocks will be younger 보다 the footwall rocks, because of erosion of the uplifted side.

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Figure 14. Typical Fault.

3D interactive design of Figure 14: http://app.visiblegeology.com/model.html#ahFzfnZpc2libGUtZ2VvbG9neXIPCxIFTW9kZWwYiZKSowEM

Reverse Faults

In reverse faults, the hanging wall surface moves upwards relative to the footwall. This motion have the right to be figured out by tracing the counter of the beds in a vertical motion in a block diagram. In map view, the hanging wall rocks will certainly be older 보다 the footwall rocks, because of erosion that the uplifted next (Figure 15).

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Figure 15. Turning back Fault.

3D interactive version of Figure 15: http://app.visiblegeology.com/model.html#ahFzfnZpc2libGUtZ2VvbG9neXIPCxIFTW9kZWwY6b-logEM

A reverse fault that has actually a shallowly dipping fault aircraft (perhaps much less than about 45 degrees) is referred to as a thrust error (Figure 16).

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Figure 16. Thrust Fault.

3D interactive model of Figure 16: http://app.visiblegeology.com/model.html#ahFzfnZpc2libGUtZ2VvbG9neXIPCxIFTW9kZWwYmeCSowEM

Transform or Strike-slip Faults

In transform or strike-slip faults, one block move laterally family member to the various other block – it does not issue which one is the hanging wall or footwall. The fault aircraft can be vertical or in ~ an edge (Figures 17 and also 18).

Imagine you space standing top top one next of a transform error looking throughout the fault to a friend on the other side. In a left-lateral transform fault, her friend on the contrary block move towards your left. In a right-lateral transform fault, her friend on the contrary block move towards your right. This is true no matter which block you space standing on, because it is family member motion! Sometimes, change faults will certainly be marked with the relative motion directions top top either next of the error (Figures 17 and 18).

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Figure 17. Ideal Lateral change Fault.

3D interactive design of Figure 17: http://app.visiblegeology.com/model.html#ahFzfnZpc2libGUtZ2VvbG9neXIPCxIFTW9kZWwYqunKmAEM

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Figure 18. Left Lateral transform Fault.

3D interactive design of Figure 18: http://app.visiblegeology.com/model.html#ahFzfnZpc2libGUtZ2VvbG9neXIPCxIFTW9kZWwYubfLmAEM

Questions
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Figure 19. Block diagram and also map view for question 7.

3D interactive version of Figure 19: http://app.visiblegeology.com/model.html#ahFzfnZpc2libGUtZ2VvbG9neXIPCxIFTW9kZWwYurfLmAEM



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Figure 20. Block diagram and map watch for concern 8.

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3D interactive version of Figure 20: http://app.visiblegeology.com/model.html#ahFzfnZpc2libGUtZ2VvbG9neXIPCxIFTW9kZWwYqenKmAEM

Question 8: What kind of error is displayed in Figure 20?

NormalReverseRight Lateral TransformLeft Lateral Transform

Question 9. What type of fault is this (from the Corinth Canal, Greece)? Hint: Look in ~ the dark brown layer. Https://skfb.ly/6tTnT

NormalReverseRight Lateral TransformLeft Lateral Transform

References

Text modified indigenous http://opengeology.org/textbook/9-crustal-deformation-and-earthquakes/ CC-BY-SA.