Process theory of MotivationDescribe the process theories that motivation, and also compare and also contrast the main process theories that motivation: operant conditioning theory, same theory, score theory, and also expectancy theory.

You are watching: Managers can motivate employees to increase their efforts by ____.

Process theories the motivation try to explain why actions are initiated. This theories emphasis on the mechanism through which we select a target, and the effort that we exert come “hit” the target. There space four significant process theories: (1) operant conditioning, (2) equity, (3) goal, and also (4) expectancy.

Operant air conditioning Theory

Operant conditioning concept is the simplest of the motivation theories. That basically says that world will perform those points for i beg your pardon they are rewarded and also will avoid doing points for i beg your pardon they are punished. This premise is sometimes referred to as the “law the effect.” However, if this were the sum complete of air conditioning theory, we would certainly not be mentioning it here. Operant conditioning theory does offer greater insights than “reward what girlfriend want and also punish what girlfriend don’t,” and also knowledge of its ethics can lead to effective management practices.

Operant conditioning concentrates on the discovering of voluntarily behaviors.

B.F. Skinner. 1953. Science and also human behavior. new York: totally free Press; B.F. Skinner. 1969. Contingencies of reinforcement. east Norwalk, CT: Appleton Century-Crofts; B.F. Skinner. 1971. Beyond freedom and dignity. new York: Bantam Books.

The ax operant conditioning suggests that finding out results from our “operating on” the environment. After we “operate top top the environment” (that is, act in a certain fashion), aftermath result. These results determine the likelihood of comparable behavior in the future. Finding out occurs since we perform something come the environment. The environment then reaction to our action, and our subsequent behavior is influenced by this reaction.

The straightforward Operant Model

According come operant conditioning theory, we learn to behave in a particular fashion due to the fact that of after-effects that resulted from our previous behaviors.


The learning procedure involves three distinct steps (see (Figure)). The an initial step entails a stimulus (S). The stimulus is any situation or occasion we consciousness that we then answer to. A homework assignment is a stimulus. The 2nd step involves a response (R), that is, any behavior or activity we take it in reaction to the stimulus. Continuing to be up late to get your homework assignment in on time is a response. (We usage the words response and behavior interchangeably here.) Finally, a consequence (C) is any type of event that follows our an answer and that renders the response more or less likely to happen in the future. If Colleen Sullivan receives prayer from her premium for functioning hard, and if obtaining that worship is a pleasurable event, climate it is most likely that Colleen will certainly work difficult again in the future. If, ~ above the other hand, the exceptional ignores or criticizes Colleen’s response (working hard), this consequence is most likely to do Colleen avoid working difficult in the future. The is the experienced an effect (positive or negative) that impacts whether a solution will be recurring the next time the stimulus is presented.

Reinforcement occurs when a repercussion makes it an ext likely the response/behavior will be recurring in the future. In the previous example, praise from Colleen’s remarkable is a reinforcer. Extinct occurs once a an effect makes it much less likely the response/behavior will be repetitive in the future. Criticism indigenous Colleen’s supervisor could cause her to stop working hard on any type of assignment.

There room three means to do a response much more likely come recur: hopeful reinforcement, an adverse reinforcement, and avoidance learning. In addition, there are two ways to make the solution less likely to recur: nonreinforcement and also punishment.

Making a Response an ext Likely

According to combine theorists, managers have the right to encourage employees to repeat a actions if they provide a desirable consequence, or reward, after the habits is performed. A hopeful reinforcement is a desirable consequence that satisfies an active need or that clears a barrier to require satisfaction. It have the right to be as simple as a sort word or as major as a promotion. Service providers that administer “dinners because that two” together awards to those employees who go the extra mile space utilizing positive reinforcement. It is important to note that there are large variations in what civilization consider to be a positive reinforcer. Worship from a supervisor might be a an effective reinforcer for some workers (like high-nAch individuals) yet not others.

Another technique for making a wanted response an ext likely come be repeated is well-known as negative reinforcement. As soon as a habits causes something undesirable to it is in taken away, the habits is more likely come be repeated in the future. Supervisors use an adverse reinforcement as soon as they eliminate something unpleasant from an employee’s work environment in the hope the this will certainly encourage the preferred behavior. Ted doesn’t prefer being continually reminded by Philip to work quicker (Ted think Philip is nagging him), so he works quicker at stocking shelves to avoid being criticized. Philip’s reminders are a an adverse reinforcement for Ted.

Approach using an adverse reinforcement with extreme caution. An adverse reinforcement is often puzzled with punishment. Punishment, unlike combine (negative or positive), is to plan to make a specific behavior go away (not it is in repeated). An unfavorable reinforcement, like optimistic reinforcement, is to plan to make a behavior much more likely to be recurring in the future. In the vault example, Philip’s reminders concurrently punished one actions (slow stocking) and reinforced another (faster stocking). The distinction is regularly a good one, yet it i do not care clearer when we determine the behaviors we room trying come encourage (reinforcement) or discourage (punishment).

A worker stacks eggs on the shelves in ~ a supermarket. Take into consideration the interchange between Ted and also Philip about speeding increase the shelf restocking process. What can go wrong? (Credit: Alex Barth/ flickr/ Attribution 2.0 share (CC by 2.0))


A third an approach of do a response more likely come occur requires a process known as avoidance learning. Avoidance finding out occurs once we find out to behave in a certain way to protect against encountering one undesired or unpleasant consequence. Us may discover to wake up up a minute or so before our alarm clock ring so we have the right to turn that off and also not hear the irritating buzzer. Some workers learn to obtain to occupational on time to protect against the harsh words or punitive actions of your supervisors. Countless organizational discipline systems rely heavily on avoidance discovering by making use of the hazard of an adverse consequences come encourage wanted behavior. When managers warn one employee not to be so late again, as soon as they threaten to fire a careless worker, or when they transport someone come an undesirable position, they space relying top top the power of avoidance learning.

Making a response Less Likely

At times it is necessary to discourage a worker native repeating one undesirable behavior. The techniques managers use to make a behavior less most likely to happen involve law something the frustrates the individual’s need satisfaction or that clears a currently satisfying circumstance. Punishment is one aversive an effect that follows a behavior and makes it less likely to reoccur.

Note that managers have another alternative, known as nonreinforcement, in i beg your pardon they administer no an effect at all following a worker’s response. Nonreinforcement at some point reduces the likelihood that that solution reoccurring, which method that managers who fail to reinforce a worker’s desirable actions are likewise likely to see that desirable habits less often. If Philip never ever rewards Ted when he finishes stocking on time, because that instance, Ted will more than likely stop trying come beat the clock. Nonreinforcement can additionally reduce the likelihood that employees will certainly repeat undesirable behaviors, although the doesn’t produce results as conveniently as punishment does. Furthermore, if other reinforcing aftermath are present, nonreinforcement is i can not qualify to it is in effective.

While punishment plainly works an ext quickly than does nonreinforcement, it has some potentially undesirable next effects. Although punishment efficiently tells a human what not come do and also stops the undesired behavior, it does no tell lock what they should do. In addition, even when punishment works as intended, the worker gift punished frequently develops an adverse feelings towards the person who walk the punishing. Although periodically it is very difficult for supervisors to stop using punishment, it works ideal when reinforcement is also used. One experiment conducted by 2 researchers at the college of Kansas uncovered that using nonmonetary reinforcement in addition to punitive disciplinary actions was one effective way to to decrease absenteeism in an industrial setting.

R. W. Kempen & R. V. Hall. 1977. Palliation of industrial absenteeism: results of a behavior approach. Journal the Organizational habits Management 20:1–21.
Schedules that Reinforcement

When a person is learning a new behavior, like just how to execute a new job, that is preferable to reinforce effective behaviors every time they space demonstrated (this is dubbed shaping). However in establishments it is no usually feasible to reinforce desired habits every time they space performed, for noticeable reasons. Moreover, research shows that continuous reinforcing preferred behaviors, termed continuous reinforcement, can be detrimental in the lengthy run. Habits that are learned under constant reinforcement are easily extinguished (cease to it is in demonstrated). This is due to the fact that people will suppose a price (the reinforcement) every time they screen the behavior. When they don’t get it after just a couple of times, they quickly presume the the behavior will no much longer be rewarded, and they quit act it. Any employer can change employees’ behavior by simply not paying them!

If behaviors cannot (and need to not) be reinforced every time they space exhibited, how often should they it is in reinforced? This is a question around schedules that reinforcement, or the frequency in ~ which effective employee actions should be reinforced. Much of the early research top top operant conditioning concentrated on the best means to maintain the power of wanted behaviors. The is, the attempted to determine exactly how frequently behaviors need come be bonus so that they room not extinguished. Research study zeroed in on four species of combine schedules:

Fixed Ratio. v this schedule, a fixed number of responses (let’s to speak five) have to be displayed before any kind of of the responses room reinforced. If the desired an answer is comes to job-related on time, then providing employees a ?25 bonus for being punctual every work from Monday v Friday would certainly be a fixed proportion of reinforcement.

Variable Ratio. A variable-ratio schedule reinforces behaviors, on average, a fixed number of times (again stop say five). Occasionally the tenth behavior is reinforced, other times the first, however on mean every fifth an answer is reinforced. People who perform under together variable-ratio schedules prefer this don’t recognize when they will be rewarded, but they do know that lock will be rewarded.

Fixed Interval. In a fixed-interval schedule, a certain amount that time should pass before a actions is reinforced. With a one-hour fixed-interval schedule, for example, a supervisor access time an employee’s workstation and also reinforces the very first desired habits she sees. She return one hour later and also reinforces the next preferable behavior. This schedule doesn’t imply that reinforcement will be received instantly after the i of the moment period. The time should pass and an appropriate response must it is in made.

Variable Interval. The change interval differs from fixed-interval schedule in that the mentioned time interval overcome on average before one more appropriate solution is reinforced. Periodically the time duration is much shorter than the average; sometimes it is longer.

Which type of combine schedule is best? In general, continuous reinforcement is ideal while employee are learning their tasks or brand-new duties. ~ that, variable-ratio combine schedules are superior. In most situations the fixed-interval schedule to produce the least effective results, with addressed ratio and also variable interval fallout’s in in between the 2 extremes. But remember that effective behaviors must it is in reinforced v some kind of schedule, or they may become extinguished.

Equity Theory

Suppose girlfriend have operated for a agency for several years. Your performance has actually been excellent, you have actually received consistent pay increases, and also you get in addition to your boss and coworkers. Someday you pertained to work to find that a brand-new person has been rental to occupational at the same task that you do. You are pleased to have the extra help. Then, you discover out the new person is make ?100 more per week 보다 you, despite your much longer service and greater experience. Just how do you feel? If you like many of us, you’re fairly unhappy. Her satisfaction has just evaporated. Nothing about your job has changed—you get the very same pay, do the very same job, and work because that the very same supervisor. Yet, the addition of one new employee has actually transformed girlfriend from a happy to an unhappy employee. This feeling of unfairness is the basis because that equity theory.

Equity theory states that an ideas is influenced by the outcomes we get for our inputs contrasted to the outcomes and also inputs of various other people.

J.S. Adams. 1965. Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 2). Brand-new York: scholastic Press; G.C. Homans. 1961. Social behavior: Its elementary forms. new York: Harcourt, Brace, & World.

This concept is involved with the reactions human being have come outcomes they get as part of a “social exchange.” follow to equity theory, our reaction to the outcomes we get from others (an employer) count both on how we value those outcomes in an absolute feeling and ~ above the circumstances surrounding their receipt. Equity theory suggests that our reactions will certainly be affected by our perceptions of the “inputs” noted in bespeak to obtain these outcomes (“Did I obtain as lot out that this as I put into it?”). Even more important is our comparison of our inputs to what we think others obtained for your inputs (“Did I acquire as much for my inputs together my coworkers obtained for theirs?”).

The simple Equity Model

The basic premise that equity theory is that we repeatedly monitor the degree to which ours work setting is “fair.” In identify the level of fairness, we think about two set of factors, inputs and outcomes (see (Figure)). Input are any factors we contribute to the company that us feel have value and also are pertinent to the organization. Keep in mind that the value attached to an intake is based upon our perception of that is relevance and also value. Even if it is or no anyone rather agrees the the intake is relevant or an useful is unimportant come us. Typical inputs in organizations incorporate time, effort, power level, education and learning level, skill levels, and also bypassed opportunities. Since any factor we think about relevant is included in our testimonial of equity, it is not unusual for determinants to be had that the company (or also the law) can argue are inappropriate (such as age, sex, country background, or society status).


Outcomes space anything us perceive together getting earlier from the organization in exchange for our inputs. Again, the value attached to an outcome is based upon our perceptions and also not necessarily on target reality. Common outcomes from organizations encompass pay, functioning conditions, project status, feel of achievement, and also friendship opportunities. Both optimistic and an unfavorable outcomes influence our testimonial of equity. Stress, headaches, and also fatigue are also potential outcomes. Since any kind of outcome we consider relevant come the exchange influences our same perception, we typically include unintended components (peer disapproval, family members reactions).

Equity theory predicts that we will certainly compare ours outcomes to our entry in the type of a ratio. Top top the communication of this proportion we make an initial determination of even if it is or no the instance is equitable. If us perceive the the outcomes we receive are commensurate through our inputs, we are satisfied. If we think that the outcomes room not commensurate through our inputs, we space dissatisfied. This dissatisfaction have the right to lead come ineffective behaviors for the organization if they continue. The crucial feature of equity concept is that it predicts the we will certainly compare our ratios come the ratios of other people. The is this to compare of the 2 ratios that has the strongest result on our equity perceptions. This other civilization are referred to as referent others because we “refer to” them once we referee equity. Usually, referent rather are human being we work-related with that perform job-related of a comparable nature. That is, referent rather perform work that are similar in challenge and complexity to the employee make the equity decision (see (Figure)).

Three conditions can an outcome from this comparison. Our outcome-to-input ratio could equal the referent other’s. This is a state of equity. A second result could be that our ratio is higher than the referent other’s. This is a state the overreward inequity. The third an outcome could it is in that us perceive our proportion to be less than the of the referent other. This is a state of underreward inequity.

Equity theory has a lot come say about an easy human tendencies. The motivation to compare our instance to that of others is strong. Because that example, what is the very first thing girlfriend do once you obtain an exam ago in class? more than likely look at your score and also make one initial judgment as to its fairness. For a the majority of people, the really next thing they carry out is look in ~ the scores got by fellow students that sit close to them. A 75 percent score doesn’t look so poor if everyone else score lower! This is equity theory in action.

Most employees in the United claims are at the very least partially dissatisfied through their pay.

Equity theory helps describe this. Two person tendencies develop feelings that inequity that are not based in reality. One is the we have tendency to overrate our performance levels. For example, one study carried out by her authors asked much more than 600 employees to anonymously rate their power on a 7-point range (1 = poor, 7 = excellent). The typical was 6.2, an interpretation the average employee rated his or her performance as very great to excellent. This suggests that the median employee likewise expects great pay increases, a policy many employers cannot afford if they room to stay competitive. One more study uncovered that the average employee (one whose performance is far better than half of the various other employees and also worse 보다 the other half) rated her power at the 80th percentile (better 보다 80 percent of the various other employees, worse 보다 20 percent).

J. Kane & E.E. Lawler, III. 1979. Power appraisal effectiveness. In B. Staw (ed.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 1). Greenwood, CT: JAI Press.

Again it would be impossible for most organizations to prize the median employee at the 80th percentile. In various other words, most employees inaccurately overrate the inputs they provide to an organization. This leads to awareness of inequity that space not justified.

The 2nd human propensity that leader to unwarranted perceptions of inequity is our tendency to overrate the outcomes the others.

E.E. Lawler, III. 1972. Secrecy and also the need to know. In M. Dunnette, R. House, & H. Tosi (eds.), Readings in managerial motivation and compensation. eastern Lansing: Michigan State college Press.

plenty of employers store the pay levels of employees a “secret.” Still other employers actually forbid employee to talk around their pay. This way that many employees don’t recognize for specific how much their colleagues are paid. And, because most of us overestimate the salary of others, we tend to think that they’re paid an ext than they actually are, and also the unjustified awareness of inequity are perpetuated.

The bottom line for employers is the they have to be perceptible to employees’ need for equity. Employers need to do every little thing they can to protect against feelings of inequity since employees connect in effective habits when lock perceive equity and ineffective behaviors when they perceive inequity.

Perceived Overreward Inequity

When us perceive that overreward inequity exist (that is, we unfairly make an ext than others), it is rare that we are so dissatisfied, guilty, or sufficiently motivated that we make changes to produce a state of viewed equity (or we leave the situation). Indeed, feeling of overreward, once they occur, are quite transient. Very couple of of united state go come our employers and complain that we’re overpaid! Most human being are less sensitive to overreward inequities 보다 they are to underreward inequities.

I.R. Andrews. 1967. Fairy inequity and job performance: An speculative study. Journal of used Psychology 51:39–45; J.S. Adams. 1963a. In the direction of an expertise of inequity. Journal that Abnormal society Psychology 67:422–436; J.S. Adams. 1963b. Wage inequities, productivity and work quality. Industrial Relations 3:9–16.

yet infrequently lock are provided for overreward, the same types of action are accessible for handling both species of inequity.

Perceived Underreward Inequity

When we perceive the underreward inequity exists (that is, others unfairly make an ext than we do), we will most likely be dissatisfied, angered, and motivated to change the case (or escape the situation) in stimulate to produce a state of regarded equity. As we talk about shortly, world can take plenty of actions to resolve underreward inequity.

Reducing Underreward Inequity

A straightforward situation helps describe the after-effects of inequity. Two automobile workers in Detroit, John and also Mary, close lug nuts to wheel on cars together they come down the assembly line, man on the left side and also Mary on the right. Your inputs space equal (both close the same number of lug nuts at the very same pace), however John makes ?500 per week and also Mary provides ?600. Their equity ratios room thus:


As you can see, their ratios are not equal; the is, mary receives greater outcome for equal input. Who is suffering inequity? according to same theory, both john and Mary—underreward inequity for John, and overreward inequity for Mary. Mary’s inequity won’t last lengthy (in actual organizations), but in our theoretical example, what can John do to deal with this?

Adams established a variety of things people do to mitigate the tension developed by a perceived state that inequity. They adjust their very own outcomes or inputs, or they adjust those of the referent other. Lock distort their own perceptions of the outcomes or input of one of two people party by using a various referent other, or they leave the situation in i m sorry the inequity is occurring.

Alter inputs of the person. The viewed state the equity have the right to be altered by an altering our own inputs, the is, by decreasing the quantity or high quality of our performance. John can impact his own mini slowdown and also install only nine lug nuts on each automobile as that comes down the production line. This, that course, might reason him to shed his job, therefore he more than likely won’t select this alternative.Alter outcomes of the person. We can attempt to increase outcomes to attain a state the equity, favor ask for a raise, a nicer office, a promotion, or other positively valued outcomes. So man will likely ask because that a raise. Unfortunately, many world enhance their outcomes by steal from their employers.Alter inputs of the referent other. Once underrewarded, we may shot to attain a state of perceived equity by encouraging the referent various other to increase their inputs. We may demand, for example, that the referent other “start pulling your weight,” or perhaps assist the referent various other to come to be a far better performer. That doesn’t issue that the referent various other is currently pulling your weight—remember, this is all around perception. In ours example, John might ask mar to placed on two of his ten lug nuts together each auto comes under the assembly line. This would not likely happen, however, so John would certainly be motivated to try another alternative to mitigate his inequity.Alter outcomes of the referent other. We deserve to “correct” a state the underreward by straight or indirect reducing the worth of the rather outcomes. In our example, man could shot to get Mary’s pay lowered to minimize his inequity. This also would most likely not happen in the situation described.Distort awareness of input or outcomes. It is feasible to reduce a perceived state of inequity without an altering input or outcome. We just distort our very own perceptions of our inputs or outcomes, or us distort ours perception the those the the referent other. Thus, John might tell himself that “Mary does much better work than I thought” or “she enjoys her work-related much much less than i do” or “she it s okay paid less than i realized.”Choose a different referent other. We deserve to also deal with both over- and also underreward inequities by changing the referent other (“my instance is really much more like Ahmed’s”). This is the simplest and most powerful way to resolve perceived inequity: it requires neither actual nor perceptual changes in anybody’s entry or outcome, and it causes us come look around and assess ours situation more carefully. Because that example, john might select as a referent other Bill, that installs dashboards however makes less money 보다 John.Leave the situation. A final technique for handling a perceived state the inequity requires removing ourselves indigenous the situation. We can select to achieve this v absenteeism, transfer, or termination. This strategy is usually not selected unless the perceived inequity is rather high or various other attempts in ~ achieving equity room not easily available. Most car workers space paid fairly well for their work. John is i can not qualify to discover an indistinguishable job, so it is likewise unlikely that he will select this option.
Implications of equity Theory

Equity theory is commonly used, and also its ramifications are clear. In the vast majority of cases, employees suffer (or perceive) underreward inequity quite than overreward. As disputed above, few of the habits that an outcome from underreward inequity are an excellent for employers. Thus, employers shot to stop unnecessary perceptions of inequity. They perform this in a number of ways. They shot to be together fair as feasible in allocation pay. The is, they measure up performance levels together accurately together possible, then offer the greatest performers the highest possible pay increases. Second, most employers are no much longer secretive around their pay schedules. Human being are normally curious about how lot they space paid family member to rather in the organization. This doesn’t mean that job don’t practice discretion—they usually don’t reveal particular employees’ exact pay. Yet they do tell employee the minimum and also maximum pay levels for your jobs and the salary scales for the tasks of rather in the organization. Together practices offer employees a factual basis because that judging equity.

Supervisors pat a key role in developing perceptions of equity. “Playing favorites” guarantee perceptions that inequity. Employees desire to be bonus on their merits, not the whims of your supervisors. In addition, supervisors must recognize distinctions in employees in their reactions come inequity. Part employees are extremely sensitive come inequity, and a supervisor needs to be especially cautious about them.

R.C. Huseman., J.D. Hatfield, & E.W. Miles. 1987. A brand-new perspective on equity theory: The equity sensitivity construct. Academy of administration Review 12:222–234; E.W. Miles, J.D. Hatfield, & R.C. Huseman. 1989. The same sensitivity construct: Potential ramifications for worker performance. Journal of Management 15:581–588.
R.J. Bies. 1987. The predicament of justice: The monitoring of ethical outrage. In B.M. Staw & L.L. Cummings (eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 9). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 289–319; J. Greenberg. 1987. A taxonomy of business justice theories. Academy of management Review 12:9–22.

but “equity sensitives” are even an ext sensitive. A major principle because that supervisors, then, is just to carry out fairness. Never base penalty or reward on even if it is or not you favor an employee. Reward behaviors that add to the organization, and also discipline those that perform not. Make sure employees understand what is meant of them, and praise them once they execute it. These methods make anyone happier and your project easier.

Goal Theory

No theory is perfect. If it was, it wouldn’t be a theory. It would certainly be a set of facts. Theories are sets the propositions that are right an ext often than they are wrong, however they are not infallible. However, the an easy propositions of score theory* come nearby to being infallible. Indeed, it is among the strongest theories in organizational behavior.

The simple Goal-Setting Model

Goal theory says that people will perform much better if they have difficult, specific, embraced performance purposes or objectives.

E.L. Locke. 1978. The ubiquity the the method of goal setting in theory of and also approaches to employee motivation. Academy of administration Review 3:594–601; F.W. Taylor. 1911. The values of scientific management. new York: Norton; K. Lewin. 1935. A dynamic concept of personality. new York: McGraw-Hill; K. Lewin. 1938. The conceptual representation and the measurement of psychological forces. Durham, NC: fight it out University Press; K. Lewin, T. Dembo, L. Festinger, & P.S. Sears. 1944. Level the aspiration. In J. McVicker hunting (ed.), Personality and also behavior disorders. brand-new York: Ronald Press, 333–378; P. Drucker. 1954. The practice of management. brand-new York: Wiley; D. McGregor. 1957. An uncomfortable look at performance appraisal. Harvard service Review 35:89–94; E.A. Locke. 1968. Toward a concept of task motivation and incentives. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 3:157–189; E.A. Locke, K.N. Shaw, L.M. Saari, & G.P. Latham. 1981. Goal setting and job performance: 1969– 1980. Psychological Bulletin 90:125–152; G. P. Latham & E.A. Locke. 1984. Goal setting: A motivational technique that works! Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
C.C. Pinder. 1984. Work motivation: Theory, issues, and also applications. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.

The first and most an easy premise the goal theory is that human being will attempt to attain those goals that castle intend come achieve. Thus, if us intend to do something (like acquire an A on one exam), we will exert effort to accomplish it. Without such goals, our initiative at the task (studying) required to accomplish the goal is less. Students whose objectives are to acquire As examine harder than students who don’t have actually this goal—we all understand this. This doesn’t typical that civilization without goals are unmotivated. That simply way that civilization with purposes are an ext motivated. The intensity of their an ideas is greater, and they are much more directed.

The second basic premise is the difficult goals an outcome in better performance than basic goals. This walk not average that daunting goals are always achieved, yet our power will generally be far better when we intend to attain harder goals. Your goal of one A in timeless Mechanics in ~ Cal Tech may not gain you her A, however it may earn girlfriend a B+, which you wouldn’t have gained otherwise. Complicated goals cause us to exert more effort, and this virtually always outcomes in much better performance.

Another premise that goal theory is that specific goals are far better than vague goals. We often wonder what we must do to it is in successful. Have you ever before asked a professor “What execute I must do to obtain an A in this course?” If she comment “Do well on the exams,” you no much much better off for having actually asked. This is a pass out response. Goal theory states that we perform better when we have particular goals. Had actually your professor told girlfriend the vital thrust of the course, to turn in all the trouble sets, to pay close fist to the essay inquiries on exams, and also to aim for scores in the 90s, girlfriend would have actually something concrete on which to develop a strategy.

A key premise that goal concept is that people must accept the goal. Normally we set our very own goals. Yet sometimes others set goals for us. Her professor informing you her goal is to “score at the very least a 90 percent on your exams” doesn’t median that you’ll accept this goal. Maybe you don’t feel you can accomplish scores in the 90s. Or, you’ve heard that 90 isn’t great enough because that an A in this class. This happens in work organizations quite often. Supervisors provide orders the something have to be done by a details time. The employees may fully understand what is wanted, yet if they feel the stimulate is unreasonable or impossible, they may not exert much initiative to accomplish it. Thus, it is essential for civilization to accept the goal. They must feel the it is additionally their goal. If they execute not, goal concept predicts the they won’t shot as difficult to attain it.

Goal theory also states that human being need come commit to a goal in enhancement to accepting it. Goal commitment is the level to which we dedicate ourselves to achieving a goal. Goal commitment is about setting priorities. We deserve to accept countless goals (go to all classes, stay awake throughout classes, take lecture notes), but we often finish up doing just some that them. In various other words, some goals are more important 보다 others. And we exert much more effort for particular goals. This likewise happens commonly at work. A software analyst’s significant goal might be to create a new program. Her minor goal may be to maintain previously created programs. That is minor due to the fact that maintaining old programs is boring, if writing new ones is fun. Goal concept predicts the her commitment, and thus she intensity, come the significant goal will certainly be greater.

Allowing people to get involved in the goal-setting process often outcomes in higher goal commitment. This needs to do through ownership. And when world participate in the process, they have tendency to incorporate determinants they think will make the goal much more interesting, challenging, and attainable. Thus, it is recipient to allow people some input right into the goal-setting process. Imposing objectives on them from the exterior usually results in less commitment (and acceptance).

The basic goal-setting version is shown in (Figure). The process starts v our values. Values room our beliefs about how the world should it is in or act, and also often encompass words like “should” or “ought.” we compare our current conditions versus these values. Because that example, Randi stop the value that everyone should be a tough worker. After ~ measuring her current work against this value, Randi concludes that she doesn’t measure as much as her own value. Adhering to this, her goal-setting procedure begins. Randi will collection a goal the affirms her condition as a difficult worker. (Figure) perform the four species of goals. Some purposes are self-set. (Randi decides come word procedure at the very least 70 pages per day.) Participative goals are together set. (Randi walk to her supervisor, and also together they collection some proper goals because that her.) In still other cases, purposes are assigned. (Her ceo tells her that she have to word process at the very least 60 pages per day.) The fourth type of goal, which have the right to be self-set, together determined, or assigned, is a “do her best” goal. Yet note this goal is vague, therefore it normally doesn’t an outcome in the best performance.


Depending top top the features of Randi’s goals, she might or may not exert a the majority of effort. Because that maximum effort to result, her goals should be difficult, specific, accepted, and also committed to. Then, if she has sufficient capacity and absence of constraints, preferably performance should occur. Examples of constraints could be the her old computer generally breaks down or her supervisor constantly interferes.

The consequence of endeavoring to reach her goal will be the Randi will be satisfied with herself. Her actions is constant with her values. She’ll be even an ext satisfied if she supervisor praises she performance and gives she a salary increase!

In Randi’s case, her goal achievement resulted in numerous benefits. However, this doesn’t always happen. If goals are not achieved, world may be unhappy v themselves, and their employer may be dissatisfied together well. Such an experience deserve to make a human reluctant come accept purposes in the future. Thus, setting challenging yet attainable objectives cannot be emphasize enough.

Goal theory can be a tremendous motivational tool. In fact, numerous organizations practice reliable management by using a technique called “management by objectives” (MBO). MBO is based on goal theory and is quite efficient when applied consistently through goal theory’s an easy premises.

Despite its numerous strengths, numerous cautions about goal theory space appropriate. Locke has figured out most that them.

First, setting goals in one area deserve to lead civilization to disregard other areas. (Randi may word process 70 pages per day, but neglect she proofreading responsibilities.) it is important that goals be set for most major duties. Second, goal setup sometimes has unintended consequences. Because that example, employees set easy goals so the they look great when they accomplish them. Or it causes unhealthy competition between employees. Or an employee sabotages the job-related of others so that just she has actually goal achievement.

Some managers use goal setup in unethical ways. They might manipulate employees by setting impossible goals. This allows them to slam employees even when the employees room doing superior job-related and, the course, reasons much stress. Goal setup should never ever be abused. Maybe the key caution about goal setting is that it often results in too much focus on quantified steps of performance. Qualitative facets of a task or task may be neglected due to the fact that they aren’t conveniently measured. Supervisors must keep employees focused on the qualitative facets of their jobs and also the quantitative ones. Finally, setup individual purposes in a teamwork environment deserve to be counterproductive.

T.R. Mitchell & W.S. Silver. 1990. Individual and also group purposes when workers room interdependent: impacts on job strategies and also performance. Journal of used Psychology 75:185–193.

where possible, the is preferable come have team goals in cases where employees depend on one an additional in the power of their jobs.

The cautions provided here space not intended come deter you from utilizing goal theory. We keep in mind them so the you can avoid the pitfalls. Remember, employees have a right to reasonable performance expectations and the rewards that result from performance, and also organizations have a ideal to intend high power levels from employees. Score theory need to be supplied to optimize the employment relationship. Goal theory holds that people will exert initiative to attain goals if those purposes are an overwhelming to achieve, welcomed by the individual, and specific in nature.

Expectancy Theory

Expectancy concept posits that we will exert much effort to execute at high levels so that us can attain valued outcomes. That is the an inspiration theory that numerous organizational behavior researchers uncover most intriguing, in no small part because that is currently additionally the most comprehensive theory. Expectations theory ties together countless of the concepts and also hypotheses indigenous the theories questioned earlier in this chapter. In addition, it points to factors that other theories miss. Span theory has actually much to offer the college student of management and organizational behavior.

Expectancy concept is sufficiently basic that that is helpful in a wide range of situations. Choices in between job offers, between working hard or no so hard, between going to work or not—virtually any set of possibilities have the right to be addressed by span theory. Basically, the theory focuses on two associated issues:

When confronted with two or an ext alternatives, which will we select?Once an alternate is chosen, how urged will we be to go after that choice?

Expectancy concept thus concentrates on the two major aspects that motivation, direction (which alternative?) and also intensity (how much initiative to implement the alternative?). The attractiveness of an alternative is determined by ours “expectations” the what is most likely to occur if we pick it. The much more we believe that the alternative chosen will cause positively valued outcomes, the greater its attractiveness to us.

Expectancy theory says that, when confronted with 2 or more alternatives, us will select the most attractive one. And, the higher the attractiveness that the favored alternative, the an ext motivated we will be to go after it. Our herbal hedonism, discussed earlier in this chapter, dram a function in this process. Us are encouraged to maximize preferable outcomes (a pay raise) and also minimize undesirable persons (discipline). Expectancy theory goes on to state that we are likewise logical in our decisions around alternatives. The considers civilization to it is in rational. people evaluate options in terms of their “pros and cons,” and then choose the one with the many “pros” and also fewest “cons.”

The an easy Expectancy Model

The three major components of expectations theory reflect its presumptions of hedonism and also rationality: effort-performance expectancy, performance-outcome expectancy, and also valences.

The effort-performance expectancy, abbreviation E1, is the regarded probability that initiative will cause performance (or E ➨ P). Power here way anything from doing fine on an exam to assembling 100 toasters a day in ~ work. Periodically people believe that no matter just how much effort they exert, castle won’t perform at a high level. They have weak E1s. Other human being have solid E1s and also believe the opposite—that is, that they deserve to perform in ~ a high level if lock exert high effort. Friend all recognize students with various E1s—those who believe that if castle study difficult they’ll do well, and also those who believe that no matter exactly how much they examine they’ll execute poorly. People construct these perceptions native prior experiences v the job at hand, and also from self-perceptions of their abilities. The main point of the E1 concept is that civilization don’t constantly perceive a straight relationship in between effort level and also performance level.

The performance-outcome expectancy, E2, is the viewed relationship between performance and outcomes (or p ➨ O).1 countless things in life take place as a duty of just how well we perform assorted tasks. E2 addresses the inquiry “What will occur if I do well?” let’s say you acquire an A in your timeless Mechanics course at Cal Tech. You will do it be elated, your classmates may envy you, and also you are now assured of that plum project at NASA. However let’s speak you got a D. Whoops, the was the critical straw for the dean. Now you’ve flunked out, and also you’re lessened to going home to live with your parental (perish the thought!). Likewise, E2 perceptions build in organizations, although hopefully no as substantially as her beleaguered career at Cal Tech. World with solid E2s believe that if they do their jobs well, they’ll receive desirable outcomes—good pay increases, worship from your supervisor, and a feeling that they’re really contributing. In the same situation, civilization with weak E2s will have the opposite perceptions—that high performance levels don’t an outcome in desirable outcomes and also that it doesn’t really matter exactly how well they carry out their jobs as lengthy as lock don’t get fired.

Valences space the most basic of the expectancy theory concepts to describe. Valences are simply the level to which we perceive an end result as desirable, neutral, or undesirable. Highly desirable outcomes (a 25 percent salary increase) are positively valent. Undesirable outcomes (being disciplined) space negatively valent. Outcomes the we’re indifferent to (where you should park your car) have actually neutral valences. Positively and negatively valent outcomes abound in the workplace—pay increases and also freezes, praise and criticism, recognition and also rejection, promotions and also demotions. And as you would expect, world differ considerably in just how they value these outcomes. Our needs, values, goals, and life situations affect what valence we offer an outcome. Equity is another consideration we usage in assigning valences. Us may consider a 10 percent pay increase preferable until we uncover out the it was the shortest raise provided in our occupational group.

(Figure) summarizes the 3 core ideas of expectancy theory. The theory states that our perceptions about our next site are essentially predictions around “what leader to what.” us perceive that details effort levels an outcome in specific performance levels. We perceive that details performance levels result in certain outcomes. Outcomes have the right to be extrinsic, in the others (our supervisor) identify whether we obtain them, or intrinsic, in the we identify if lock are received (our sense of achievement). Each outcome has an linked valence (outcome A’s valence is \\textV_\\texta). Span theory predicts that we will exert initiative that outcomes in the maximum amount of positive-valence outcomes.2 If ours E1 or E2 is weak, or if the outcomes are not saturated desirable, our motivation to exert initiative will be low. Stated differently, one individual will certainly be urged to shot to accomplish the level of performance that results in the many rewards.


Implications of expectancy Theory

Expectancy concept has significant implications for the workplace. Basically, expectations theory predicts that employees will be encouraged to execute well top top their work under 2 conditions. The an initial is as soon as employees think that a reasonable quantity of initiative will result in an excellent performance. The second is when an excellent performance is linked with positive outcomes and also low power is connected with an unfavorable outcomes. If no of these problems exists in the awareness of employees, their an ideas to do will it is in low.

Why could an employee consciousness that optimistic outcomes space not connected with high performance? Or that negative outcomes room not connected with low performance? the is, why would employees develop weak E2s? This happens because that a number of reasons. The main one is that many organizations subscribe as well strongly come a principle of equality (not to be confused with equity). Castle give all of their employees equal salaries for equal work, same pay increases annually (these are known as across-the-board pay raises), and equal therapy wherever possible. Equality-focused institutions reason that part employees “getting more” than others leader to disruptive competition and feelings of inequity.

In time employee in equality-focused organizations develop weak E2s since no distinguish are produced differential outcomes. If the best and also the worst salespeople room paid the same, in time they will certainly both decide that it isn’t worth the extra initiative to it is in a high performer. Needless to say, this is not the score of compete organizations and can cause the death of the organization as that competes with other firms in today’s an international marketplace.

Expectancy theory claims that to maximize motivation, establishments must do outcomes arbitrarily on performance. This is the main contribution of span theory: it makes us think around how institutions should distribute outcomes. If one organization, or a supervisor, to trust that dealing with everyone “the same” will an outcome in satisfied and also motivated employees, they will be wrong more times than not. Indigenous equity concept we understand that part employees, normally the better-performing ones, will endure underreward inequity. From expectations theory we recognize that employee will see no distinction in outcomes for great and negative performance, therefore they will certainly not have as much motivation to be good performers. Effective organizations need to actively encourage the tardy that good performance leads to confident outcomes (bonuses, promotions) and also that bad performance leader to an adverse ones (discipline, termination). Remember, there is a large difference between treating employees equally and also treating them equitably.

What if an company ties optimistic outcomes come high power and negative outcomes to short performance? Employees will develop solid E2s. Yet will this result in highly encouraged employees? The prize is maybe. We have yet to address employees’ E1s. If employees have actually weak E1s, they will certainly perceive that high (or low) effort does not result in high performance and thus will not exert lot effort. It is crucial for supervisors to know that this deserve to happen despite rewards because that high performance.

Task-related capability are probably the solitary biggest reason why some employees have actually weak E1s. Self-efficacy is our belief around whether us can effectively execute part future activity or task, or accomplish some result. High self-efficacy employees believe that they are likely to succeed at most or every one of their project duties and also responsibilities. And as you would certainly expect, low self-efficacy employees believe the opposite. Particular self-efficacy shows our id in our capacity to perform a certain task in ~ a details level of performance. If we think that the probability that our offering ?30,000 the jackrabbit slippers in one month is .90, our self-efficacy for this task is high. Certain self-efficacy is ours judgment about the likelihood of effective task performance measured instantly before us expend initiative on the task. Together a result, particular self-efficacy is much more variable than an ext enduring notions that personality. Still, there is tiny doubt that our state-based ideas are few of the most powerful motivators that behavior. Ours efficacy expectation at a given suggest in time determine not just our early decision to perform (or not) a task, but additionally the amount of initiative we will certainly expend and whether we will certainly persist in the face of adversity.

A. Bandura. 1977. Self-efficacy: toward a unifying concept of behavior change. Psychological Review 84:191–215; A. Bandura. 1986b. The explanatory and also predictive border of self- efficacy theory. Journal that Social and also Clinical Psychology 4:359– 373; A. Bandura. 1997. Self-efficacy: The practice of control. brand-new York: Freeman.

Self-efficacy has actually a strong impact on the E1 factor. As a result, self-efficacy is among the strongest factors of performance in any particular task situation.

D.G. Gardner & J.L. Pierce. 1998. Self-esteem and also self-efficacy within the organizational context: an empirical comparison. Group and Organization Management 23:48–70.

Employees construct weak E1s for two reasons. First, they don’t have sufficient resources to do their jobs. Resources have the right to be inner or external. Inner resources encompass what employees lug to the project (such as prior training, occupational experience, education, ability, and aptitude) and also their expertise of what they must do to be considered good performers. The second resource is called function perceptions—how employees believe their jobs are done and also how castle fit into the broader organization. If employees don’t know how come become good performers, they will have actually weak E1s. External resources include the tools, equipment, and also labor vital to do a job. The absence of great external resources can additionally cause E1s to it is in weak.

The 2nd reason for weak E1s is one organization’s failure to measure performance accurately. That is, performance ratings don’t correlate well v actual performance levels. just how does this happen? have you ever gotten a grade that you felt no reflect how much girlfriend learned? This likewise happens in organizations. Why are ratings occasionally inaccurate? Supervisors, who commonly give the end ratings, well, lock human. Perhaps they’re operating under the mistaken id that similar ratings for everyone will store the team happy. Perhaps they’re unconsciously play favorites. Probably they don’t know what great and negative performance level are. Probably the measurements they’re intended to usage don’t fit your product/team/people. Select one or all of these. Rating world is hardly ever easy.

Whatever the cause of rating errors, part employees may come to believe that no matter what they do they will never receive a high performance rating. They might in fact think that lock are fantastic performers yet that the power rating mechanism is flawed. Span theory differs from most an ideas theories due to the fact that it highlights the need for exact performance measurement. Institutions cannot motivate employee to execute at a high level if they cannot determine high performers.

Organizations exert tremendous influence over employee choices in their performance levels and also how much initiative to exert on their jobs. That is, organizations have the right to have a major impact on the direction and intensity the employees’ motivation levels. Handy applications of span theory include:

Strengthening the effort ➨ performance expectations by selecting employees who have the vital abilities, providing ideal training, giving experiences the success, clarifying task responsibilities, etc.Strengthening the power ➨ outcome span with plans that specify that desirable actions leads to desirable outcomes and also undesirable habits leads to neutral or undesirable outcomes. Constant enforcement the these plans is key—workers must think in the contingencies.Systematically analyzing which outcomes employees value. The greater the valence the outcomes offered for a behavior, the an ext likely employees will commit to the alternative. By recognizing that different employees have various values and also that values change over time, institutions can provide the most extremely valued outcomes.Ensuring that effort actually translates into performance through clarifying what actions lead to performance and also by ideal training.Ensuring proper worker outcomes because that performance through reward schedules (extrinsic outcomes) and appropriate job style (so the occupational experience itself gives intrinsic outcomes).Examining the level of outcomes listed to workers. Space they equitable, offered the worker’s inputs? space they equitable in comparison to the means other workers space treated?Measuring performance levels together accurately as possible, making sure that employees are qualified of gift high performers.

The disgruntled employee is fixed a culturally isolated function of business, and quitting prior to leaving takes the exact same forms, nevertheless of country. Cross-cultural signaling, society norms, and simple language barriers can do the job of an ideas for the an international manager confusing and counterintuitive. Connecting a passion for a common vision, coaching employee to see themselves as accountable and also as owning your work, or attempting to produce a “motivational ecosystem” have the right to all autumn flat with an easy missed cues, poor translations, or tone-deaf philosophies to a thousand-year-old culture.

Keeping employees motivated by making them feel valued and also appreciated is not simply a “Western” idea. The Ghanaian blog site Starrfmonline emphasizes the employee an ideas and linked work quality improve when employees feel “valued, trusted, challenged, and also supported in your work.” Conversely, once employees feel prefer a tool rather than a person, or feeling unengaged v their work, then performance suffers. A vicious cycle can then start when the manager treats an employee as unmotivated and also incapable, which then demotivates the employee and also elicits the guess response. The blogger cites an example from east Europe wherein a manager sidelined an employee as inefficient and also incompetent. After administration coaching, the manager revisited his assessment and began working v the employee. As he operated to facilitate the employee’s efficiency and also motivation, the employee go from being the lowest performer come a an useful team player. In the end, the blog says, “The very phrase ‘human resources’ frames employees as material to be deployed for organizational objectives. While the crucial nature of employed staff contracts requires trading labour for remuneration, if us fail come see and also appreciate our employees all at once people, efforts to motivate them will accomplish with minimal success” (Starrfmonline 2017 n.p.)

Pavel Vosk, a business and management consultant based in Puyallup, Washington, states that as well often, overachieving employee turn right into unmotivated ones. In searching for the answer, he uncovered that the most common source was a lack of acknowledgment for the employee’s initiative or outstanding performance. In fact, Vosk found that most employees go the extra mile only three times prior to they provide up. Vosk’s advice is to show gratitude because that employees’ effort, particularly when it goes over and beyond. He says the recognition doesn’t have to be over the top, simply anything that the employees will perceive together gratitude, indigenous a catered having lunch for a team functioning extra hours to satisfy a deadline to a an easy face-to-face thank you (Huhman 2017).

Richard Frazao, president of Quaketek, based in Montreal, Quebec, stresses talking to the employees and also making specific they are engaged in your jobs, citing boredom v one’s job as a significant demotivating factor (Huhman 2017).

But motivating employees is no “one dimension fits all” globally. Profitable and recognizing individuals and their achievements works well in western cultures however is undesirable in eastern cultures, which value teamwork and the cumulative over the individual. Whether to reward effort with a pay raise or through a task title or larger office is affected by culture. Demoting an employee for bad performance is an efficient motivator in oriental countries yet is most likely to an outcome in losing an employee completely in western cultures. Follow to Matthew MacLachlan at Communicaid, “Making the presumption that your worldwide workforce will be motivated by the exact same incentives have the right to be dangerous and have a real impact on talent retention” (2016 n.p.).

Huhman, heath R. 2017. “Employee an ideas Has to Be more Than ‘a pat on the Back.’” Entrepreneur.

MacLachlan, Matthew. 2016. “Management Tips: exactly how To Motivate Your global Workforce.” Communicaid.

Starrfmonline. 2017. “HR Today: Motivating civilization Starts With right Attitude.”

As a west manager functioning in the Middle east or sub-Saharan Africa, what motivational problems might girlfriend face?What troubles would you expect a manager native a Confucian culture to encounter regulating employees in America? In Europe?What regional, cultural, or ethnic problems do girlfriend think managers need to navigate within the joined States?
Expectancy Theory: one Integrative theory of Motivation

More for this reason than any type of other motivation theory, expectations theory have the right to be tied into most principles of what and how people come to be motivated. Think about the adhering to examples.

Need theories state that us are motivated to accomplish our needs. Us positively value outcomes that meet unmet needs, negatively value outcomes the thwart the satisfaction that unmet needs, and assign neutral values to outcomes that execute neither. In effect, the need theories define how valences space formed.Operant conditioning theories state that we will more than likely repeat a an answer (behavior) in the future that was reinforced in the past (that is, complied with by a positively valued consequence or the removal of a negative valued consequence). This is the basic process involved in creating performance ➨ result expectancies. Both operant theories and expectancy theory argue the our interactions v our atmosphere influence ours future behavior. The primary difference is that expectations theory describes this procedure in cognitive (rational) terms.
Understand the process theories the motivation: operant conditioning, equity, goal, and expectancy theories.Describe the managerial factors managers must take into consideration when using motivational approaches.
Describe the procedure theories the motivation, and compare and contrast the main procedure theories the motivation: operant conditioning theory, same theory, goal theory, and expectancy theory.

Process theories emphasis on exactly how people become motivated. Operant air conditioning theory states that people will be motivated to engage in actions for i m sorry they have been reinforced (rewarded). It additionally states that civilization will avoid habits that room punished. The price at which behaviors are rewarded also affects how frequently they will be displayed. Equity theory’s main premise is that world compare their instances to those of other people. If a human feels the they room being cure unfairly family member to a referent other, the human may engage in actions that room counterproductive for the organization. Employers should shot to develop feelings of same in employees. Goal theory is a solid theory. It says that difficult, particular goals will an outcome in high performance if employees expropriate the goals and are cursed to achieving them.

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Where \\textV_\\texto is the valence of a provided outcome (o), and \\textE2_\\texto is the viewed probability the a certain level of power (e.g., Excellent, average, poor) will result in the outcome. So, because that multiple outcomes, and different performance levels, the valence of the outcome and its associated performance➔outcome expectancy (E2) space multiplied and added to the analogous worth for the other outcomes. Linked with the E1 (the amount of initiative required to create a level of performance), the initiative level v the greatest force connected with it will be favored by the individual.


avoidance learningOccurs when world learn come behave in a certain way to avoid encountering an undesired or uncomfortable consequence.effort-performance expectancyE1, the viewed probability that initiative will lead to performance (or E ➨ P).equity theoryStates the human an inspiration is impacted by the outcomes human being receive for their inputs, contrasted to the outcomes and inputs of various other people.expectancy theoryPosits that world will exert high initiative levels to execute at high level so that they can attain valued outcomes.extinctionOccurs as soon as a repercussion or absence of a an effect makes it less likely the a habits will be repeated in the future.extrinsic outcomesAre awarded or given by other human being (like a supervisor).goal commitmentThe level to which human being dedicate us to achieving a goal.goal theoryStates that human being will perform far better if they have actually difficult, specific, embraced performance objectives or objectives.inputAny an individual qualities the a human views as having actually value and that are appropriate to the organization.intrinsic outcomesAre forgive or provided by world to us (such together a sense of achievement).negative reinforcementOccurs once a habits causes something undesirable to it is in removed, increasing the likelihood the the actions reoccurring.nonreinforcementOccurs once no an effect follows a worker’s b