A consistent dividend payout strategy: take into consideration what is dubbed a Constant Dividend Payout strategy. In this strategy the certain pre-specifies the annual dividend per share (DPS) in ~ a resolved percent of annual earnings per share (EPS).That is

DPST = (fixed %) x EPST ,

where T represents a particular year. In this case dividends will track income per share by a factor defined by the resolved percentage. That is

∆DPS/∆EPS = solved %

This fixed percentage is set by management after acquisition into factor to consider such things as projected revenue growth, the necessary retention price from earnings crucial to carry out capital spending tasks in the future, and other factors.

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Given the perfect correlation in between earnings and dividends, one trouble with this plan is the potential instability that dividends. Negative earnings for a provided year will pressure the dividend to it is in cancelled and the volatility the earnings and dividends will cause unwanted signaling effects described above. Because that these and also other reasons couple of firms monitor this dividend strategy and also it is not recommended.

Example: consider the pattern of DPS because that the adhering to three years if the ratio is set at a addressed 20% every year and EPS space as shown in the last column of the table below.


Clearly the consistent Dividend Payout strategy leader to erratic dividends. Firms execute not follow this strategy precisely because of the an unfavorable signaling effects that would certainly be produced.

A discretionary consistent payout policy: this firm can alter the consistent payout strategy through adjusting the dollar dividend with discretionary cash additions to or subtractions native the dividend indicated by the consistent payout policy. In this instance the continuous percentage payout is thought about the target payout indigenous which the firm can deviate as earnings adjust over time. Firms that follow this plan typically set the target payout percentage low for this reason that also if revenue are poor one year, the fixed percentage floor will not need to be violated.

Example: prolonging the previous table wherein management complies with a addressed DPS same to 20 percent of EPS together a target payout percentage, the certain is enabled the discretion come smooth annual dividends by including or individually discretionary dollar amounts each duration to the payout so as to maintain a continuous DPS payout. In the table below the consistent dollar DPS is $1.00.(Management has pre-specified that a permanent DPS that $1.00 is what have the right to be preserved by the firm.)

This practice is demonstrated in the adhering to table:



Notice that also though EPS experiences significant volatility end time, the plan is such the high earnings reduce in the interim high dividends and also low revenue temporarily increase dividends resulting in a smoother payout than would certainly be the case otherwise. While dividend are pertained to earnings, there is much much less chance that signal mis-interpretation in together a case.This cash adjustment strategy reasonably explains the vault time plot of dividends because that Black and also Decker and GM watched in Figure 5-2. (I do not recognize what the solved payout target percentages were for these two companies).


Additional dividend smoothing policies: The figure below presents two additional smoothing-type policies.The upper component of the number shows dividends boosting at a steady pace in line through the long-run trend of earnings; short-run earnings volatility is overlooked in the payment that dividends.The reasoning below is that administration expects the for sure to be able maintain a growth rate of dividends same to the longer-run trend development in earnings.

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The lower part of the number shows what is dubbed a low continuous plus extra dividend policy. With this approach, dividends are purposely kept lower than justified by earnings growth as a program matter.Extra cash is climate paid out just when earnings are substantially greater than normal.As the number shows the minimal payout is changed upward only when management feels future income are certain enough so as to insure the new minimum have the right to be maintained. Together you can imagine, having to rescind a pre-announced rise in dividends that was believed to be long-term could result in a bunch of pink slips.

Figure 5-3: The two graphics follow:


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