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Institute of medication (US) Committee on avoiding Nicotine addiction in Children and also Youths; Lynch BS, Bonnie RJ, editors. Cultivation up Tobacco Free: avoiding Nicotine addiction in Children and Youths. Washington (DC): national Academies press (US); 1994.


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Institute of medicine (US) Committee on staying clear of Nicotine addiction in Children and Youths; Lynch BS, Bonnie RJ, editors.
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INTRODUCTION: preserving THE MARKET

Every day, children and youths in the United claims are exposed come a large array of persuasive, very closely crafted commercial messages encouraging the usage of tobacco products. In 1991 the tobacco industry spent $4.6 billion—more 보다 $12.6 million a day, $8,750 a minute—on advertising and promoting* tobacco consumption, and over $100 million top top advertising and promoting smokeless tobacco products.1 during the past 15 years, the tobacco industry has nearly quadrupled** the marketing expenditures, at a time once tobacco usage has been declining. Each day, around 3,500 americans quit smoking cigarettes and an additional 1,200 tobacco customers and also former customers dice of smoking-related illness; therefore, maintaining current levels the tobacco use and revenues needs that roughly 5,000 new smokers it is in recruited every day (about 2 million a year).2 Children and youths constitute the most likely resource of new smokers. The 1991 National family members Surveys on medicine Abuse data disclose that the big majority (89%) of persons ages 30-39 who ever smoked day-to-day tried their first cigarette by age 18, and 62% by period 16; over three quarters (77%) were smoking cigarettes daily before age 20.3 At the very least 3 million American teenagers smoke regularly and also 3 million human being who frequently use smokeless tobacco are under period 21.4

Three trends have actually caused a growing variety of public health professionals to call attention come the role of marketing (advertising and other promotion approaches) in making tobacco use attractive to children and youths and in encouraging lock to usage cigarettes and also smokeless tobacco. First, boys and also girls are start to usage tobacco at ever younger ages. The average period at i m sorry boys and also girls initiate smoking cigarettes has declined over the previous 4 decades by 2.4 years in its entirety for whites, 1.3 years in its entirety for african Americans, and 5.4 and also 4.6 years for white girls and also African-American girls, respectively.5 The trend for girl to start smoking in ~ an previously age started between 1955 and also 1966,6 and the likelihood of ending up being a day-to-day smoker in ~ an earlier age increased sharply in the beforehand to mid-1970s both for boys and girls.7 throughout the very same period, a second alarming tendency in tobacco use has been noted: much more and more, youths started using smokeless tobacco products. Fifty percent of the nation"s 6 million smokeless tobacco users room under the period of 21, and also several nationwide surveys show rise in prevalence, especially amongst boys.8 A 3rd trend, i beg your pardon has emerged over the previous 10 years, involves a slowing down of the rate at which smoking prevalence by youths had actually been decreasing. Between 1977 and 1981, day-to-day smoking amongst high institution seniors to reduce a complete of about 9% (from 29% to 20%), an typical of 2.25 percent points every year. Yet throughout the complying with 11 years, 1981 to 1992 (during i beg your pardon time the tobacco industry much more than doubled its advertising and also promotion expenditures) smoking cigarettes by high college seniors dropped by just a complete of around 3% (to 17.2%), or only 0.26 percentage points every year. Among college students, native 1980 to 1992, the to decrease in daily smoking was about the exact same as for high institution seniors, other than that because that 1989-1992 there was a slim upward tendency in ubiquity of tobacco use.9 Notably, throughout this same duration (19811991), the per capita cigarette intake fell 28% among adults.10

What components have added to stable smoking rates and also to increased rates the smokeless tobacco use among children and youths, yet have proven to it is in less effective in maintain tobacco use by adults? Public health and wellness advocates imply that youths have a heightened sensitivity to picture advertising and promotion themes in ~ a time in your lives when they are struggling to define their very own identities. Adolescence is characterized by three significant types the developmental challenges: (a) physics maturation, (b) social pressures to start the transition to adult roles and emotional independence from parents, and also (c) facility of a coherent self-concept and values.11 cigarette advertisements are frequently evocative and also play turn off these challenges in addition to gift positioned to appeal to particular groups characterized by society class and ethnic identity. Early adolescence (ages 11-14) in specific may be a time of boosted susceptibility to the appeal of picture advertising and promotions. The feasible effects the marketing methods on youths are considered below, complying with a brief review of shifting trends in the appropriation of tobacco marketing dollars.


SHIFTING trends IN TOBACCO MARKETING

Tobacco advertising and promotions are plainly on the climb in the joined States. In 1991, expenditures ($4.65 billion) on advertising and promotion of tobacco products were practically four times the lot ($1.22 billion) invest in 1980 (figure 4-1). Native 1990 come 1991 alone, expenditures enhanced 13%.12 The current yearly expenditures amount to $18 for every man, woman, and also child in the joined States. Promotional activities take many forms and are the fastest farming mode that product marketing; they have actually been discovered to be effective in leading consumers to act as soon as exposed come advertising.13


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FIGURE 4-1

Source: Federal trade Commission. Report to Congress for 1991: Pursuant come the commonwealth Cigarette Labeling and also Advertising Act. Washington, D.C.: Federal profession Commission, 1994.


The tobacco industry"s circulation of marketing expenditures over the previous 2 years represents a significant shift in marketing trends; overall, the ratio of promotional expenditures to advertising expenditures has actually reversed. Whereas in 1970 advertisements stood for 82%* of full spending on tobacco marketing, castle were under to 67% in 1980, 21% in 1990, and also 17% in 1991. Although advertising expenditures per se have decreased, in its entirety spending on marketing (advertising to add promotional activities) has increased. That the $4.6 exchange rate spent yearly on tobacco marketing, about $700 million is spent on advertising. The staying $4 billion is invested on a variety of promotional tasks designed to: (a) place cigarettes and chewing tobacco in the hand of prospective users, (b) position cigarettes and chewing tobacco in significant locations in shops and also other points of sale wherein they will be psychologically appealing and also physically available to customers, and (c) create good will for the tobacco industry amongst the public, ar leaders, and also politicians.


Promoting Tobacco usage to Consumers

The goal of marketing is to boost the appeal and also acceptability of a product and also to make the product obtainable to the potential consumer. Tobacco marketing tactics (a) create attitudinal predispositions that lead nonusers to experiment v tobacco products and also interpret their suffer as positive and also rewarding, (b) foster the late that consumption of tobacco assets in general and also in specific contexts (places, times) is normative, (c) minimization concern about the potential risks associated with tobacco use, propagating the perception the there space ""safe" smoking options, and also (d) relief smokers and users that smokeless tobacco that feasible risks are worth the benefits got from tobacco use. Marketing techniques promote both brand-specific and accumulation tobacco use. The impression the tobacco usage is desirable and also normative is conveyed through photo advertising and also promotions that make tobacco assets highly visible in windy spaces—if not by your presence, then by proxy in the forms of brand trademarks, insignia, logos, and items connected with preestablished brand pictures (for example, adventure scenarios). The major forms of marketing space highlighted below.

1.

Retail value-added promotions and also specialty items. Dramatically on the climb are sleeve value-added promotions such together multiple package (buy one, obtain one free), cents-off coupons, and a cost-free key chain or lighter blister-packed to a cigarette pack. Value-added promotions and coupons made up the largest marketing expenditure (40% of complete marketing expenditures) through the tobacco sector in 1991. Advancement items have special appeal to youths. Because youths have less disposable income and also are much more price-sensitive 보다 adults, promotions such as discount buy-one-get-one-free schemes may be specifically attractive come them. Coupons are easily accessible to youths v direct-mail promotions. (See figure 4-2 because that expenditure data because that this section.) Attractive specialty items—such as T-shirts, caps, calendars, and sporting goods—are distributed by the tobacco industry through the mail and also at promotional events. This items, which sports a logo or brand name, end up being walking advertisements capable of penetrating areas of a child"s people that can be offlimits come other forms of advertising. The ubiquity of together speciality item conveys the impression the tobacco usage is the norm. Spending because that specialty items accounted for 4% of expenditures in 1991. A 1992 Gallup survey discovered that fifty percent of all adolescent smokers and also one-quarter that adolescent nonsmokers own at least one promotional item native a tobacco company.14 comparable data to be reported in a survey of almost 8,000 9th graders in Erie County, brand-new York: 65% of regular smokers, 48% of occasional smokers, and also 28% that nonsmokers reported owning garments with a cigarette brand logo.15 Although many youths it seems to be ~ to find logo clothing appealing, some high school students in focus groups (conducted under the auspices that the Committee) discovered them "tacky" and would not think about wearing them. Notably, however, these same teens save Marlboro Miles and Camel Cash coupons in stimulate to get other varieties of goods. In a 1993 survey of 1,047 respondents eras 12-17, ownership of an typical of 3.2 tobacco advancement items was reported by 10.6% of the sample. When 68.2% of existing smokers report participating in advancement campaigns, 28.4% the nonsmoking teenagers were also energetic participants. These promotional items carry no warning labels and also provide free advertising.16

"My brothers gets the Camel Cash. He"s acquired stacks and stacks of them to gain hats or whatever. "

—adolescent in emphasis group

2.

Promotional allowances constitute the second largest tobacco marketing expenditure—25% of every marketing-related expenditures. Through this type of promotion, tobacco companies pay retailers because that shelf space, engage in cooperative advertising with retailers, and also offer trade promotions to wholesalers, etc. Retailers are rewarded because that stocking a wide variety of brands, also brands through low industry demand. For example, a convenience save owner that sells 2,000 packs every week may be motivated to stock over 180 different brand packings (some having actually only 0.1% industry share) in order to be eligible come receive incentive payments, which could be together high together $8,000 per year because that a moderate-size retailer.17

As a an outcome of trade incentives, cigarettes and other tobacco commodities are shown prominently wherein adults and also youths that all ages can see them. Self-service screens are vital source that tobacco products for minors.18 Cigarettes are commonly displayed near checkout counters, and flavored chewing tobacco has actually been reported to be displayed near candy racks in convenience shops. A survey in California the stores near high schools found chewing tobacco beside candy and snacks in 42% that the stores.19 In addition to recording the eye of a potential the person who lives who might not consciously be in the industry for a tobacco product, the positioning of tobacco v other assets conveys subtle associational meanings. For example, when put near liquor, together they frequently are, cigarettes involved be connected with adult status and also with products promoted to change one"s awareness away native the stress, strains, anxieties, and boredom of regimen existence, as a method of offering some short-lived release and relief.

3.

Point-of-sale proclaiming showcases certain brands of cigarettes in shops come stimulate impulse purchases. Due to the fact that the 1971 half on broadcast advertising, tobacco companies have actually made marketing through circulation a major function of your sales forces, i m sorry numbered much more than 9,000 industry vast in the early on 1980s.20 This marketing technique places the tobacco commodities in convenient, visible racks, typically self-service, and in point-of-purchase displays. Point-of-sale promotions often tend to show off the retailer, and also the consumer, in a brand product. Support of brands through point-of-sale declaring helps come bolster the legitimacy the a brand in the eyes of retailers that make stocking decisions.21 Point-of-sale products are combination with nationwide advertising campaigns to tie retailers in v the image-building for the product. In this sense, point-of-sale proclaiming both influences product distribution and directly induces consumption.22 Point-of-sale declaring in retail facilities has been increasing and also in 1991 represented 7.4% that advertising and also promotional expenditures.

4.

Magazine and newspaper advertising accounted for about 7% that marketing expenditures in 1991, as soon as expenditures on newspaper ads reached an all-time short of 1.0%, a big drop since the 1980 high the 24.5%. Newspaper ads were under to 6% of marketing dollars in 1991, from 21.4% in 1980. Nevertheless, expenditures on tobacco proclaiming in the publish media do proceed to be considerable and the decreases space not arising at the exact same rate throughout all market segments; for example, if the number of ads per magazine worry has declined in men"s and women"s magazines, it has actually remained fairly stable in those magazines having substantial African-American and also youth readerships.23 In addition, advertisements room often an unified with interaction promotional items the appeal to children and youths. Because that example, plenty of magazine advertisements attribute giveaway, non-cigarette energy items (calendars, lighters, T-shirts, and also "action products") linked with "cash coupon" catalogue offers. Magazines often inform potential customers to be on the lookout for additional information around these uses at point-of-sale locations.

"They advertising a lot. Every magazine ns have—there"s an advertisement for Camels, Marlboros, Newports."

—high institution girl in emphasis group

5.

The tobacco market was the number one spender for outdoor advertising in 1989,24 the the roughly 3 million billboards in the united States, 30% were allocated to tobacco and alcohol products.25 declaring through the use of the end billboards and transit system indicators accounted for 9.6% of every tobacco marketing expenditures in 1991. The industry has saturated African-American areas with tobacco billboards. Studies disclose that the intensity of cigarette billboard advertising is 2.6 times higher in African-American than in white communities in Columbia, south Carolina,26 and 3.8 times greater in Baltimore.27 Despite an alleged industry standards to the contrary, billboards advertising tobacco assets can be found next to homes, schools, churches, parks, playgrounds, health centers, stadiums, to buy centers, and along rural and city streets. Much more permanent 보다 magazine advertising, and seen over and also over again by youths, billboard ads expose kids repeatedly to pro-tobacco messages and also give the erroneous impression that smoking is pervasive and normative.

6.

Sponsorship the sporting events and also public entertainment associates tobacco through (a) all-American cultural events, such together music concerts and art exhibits, where an essential social values room celebrated, and (b) high-risk sporting events, such together rodeos and car racing, where dangers are socially approved and also taken by people who brave the odds. The tobacco sector sponsors opera and ballet performances, and concerts the rock, rap, country and also western, blues, jazz, and classical music, making tobacco assets highly clearly shows to varied populations and also strengthening the association between cigarettes, artistic expression, entertainment, glamour, and individuality.

Expenditures top top the promotion of sports and sporting events are growing. The 1994 operated doctor general"s report has called special fist to sponsorship of sporting events associated with a company"s brand surname and/or logo, noting the this constitutes one of the many effective means of concealed advertising. Even throughout events that are not funded by the tobacco industry, tobacco products are permanently displayed: tobacco billboards are the dominant type of advertising in many major professional stadiums. Youths attend such sporting events, and also watch lock on television; many seek come emulate sporting activities superstars, such together baseball players, that visibly chew and spit tobacco during these sporting activities events, thereby actually demonstrating the use of the products on the billboards. Every 3-second exposure that a billboard in a ballpark has a marketing impact similar to a 10-second TV commercial.28 A commonly cited example of just just how much product exposure is establish through surprise advertising during sporting events is the 1989 Marlboro grand Prix: as soon as the occasion was televised, the Marlboro logo can be seen for 46 the the 94 total minutes the this sport event"s transfer time.29 In the 1987 NASCAR Stock race Circuit the Winston logo showed up for a total of 6 hours and also 22 minutes—nonpaid covert proclaiming on the waiting valued at $7.5 million.30 In 1992, 354 motorsports broadcasts to be quantitatively measured for approximates of product exposure value. The programs had a full viewing audience of 915 million, 7% of whom were children and teens, and also an overall tobacco product exposure value of $68 million ($41 million for Winston, $12 million because that Marlboro, $7 million because that Skoal, $4 million for Camel, and $4 million for others).31 studies have found that youths accurately combine sporting events with tobacco brands.32

7.

Distribution of free samples of cigarettes in public places, because that "adults only," was at its greatest percentage (about 7%) of total marketing dollars in the early 1970s, and also has stayed about 2% since the late 1980s. Surveillance of who is given complimentary samples has been poor, and tobacco providers who contract-out sample circulation have take away no obligation for quote violations in i m sorry minors have actually been given samples.

8.

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Expenditures for direct-mail promotions room on the rise; $65 million was spent in 1991, boost of 22% over 1990. Every five significant cigarette companies actively compile mailing list of customers, greatly from coupons, which ask for name, address, usual brand, etc; from promotion redemptions; indigenous the return that "smoker surveys" in magazines; and also from the return of more general consumer information questionnaires. The develops sometimes ask detailed questions around brand usage and about demographic characteristics. Brown & Williamson, Lorrilard, and also American Brands usage their lists periodically to send the end coupons. R. J. Reynolds Tobacco agency (RJR), Philip Morris Tobacco Company, and also United claims Tobacco company (UST) have made an ext substantial use of your mailing lists. UST sends its listees a slick quarterly magazine, Heartland, which place Skoal and Copenhagen in a satisfied context and contains miscellaneous offers. RJR and also Philip Morris mount constant mailings fostering a range of brands, depending upon the qualities of the people on the lists. RJR disclosure Camel and also discount brands, and sometimes sends out coupons an excellent for any top-of-the-line RJR cigarette product. Philip Morris has unique mail programs because that Marlboro, Virginia Slims, Merit, and Benson & Hedges. People on the Camel lists have actually received at the very least six mailings in the previous year personal from any kind of coupon redemptions.