A) mix a heat-killed pathogenic strain of bacteria with a living nonpathogenic stress, overload can convert some the the life cells right into the pathogenic form.

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B) mix a heat-killed nonpathogenic stress, overload of bacteria with a life pathogenic strain provides the pathogenic strain nonpathogenic.

C) Infecting mice with nonpathogenic strains of bacteria makes them resistant come pathogenic strains.

D) mice infected v a pathogenic stress, overload of bacteria have the right to spread the infection to other mice.



2) how do us describe transformation in bacteria?

A) the development of a strand that DNA native an RNA molecule

B) the production of a strand of RNA native a DNA molecule

C) the epidemic of cells by a phage DNA molecule

D) adaptation of outside DNA into a cell



3) After mix a heat-killed, phosphorescent (light-emitting) stress, overload of bacteria v a living, nonphosphorescent strain, you find that few of the living cell are currently phosphorescent. Which observation(s) would provide the finest evidence the the capability to phosphoresce is a heritable trait?

A) proof that DNA to be passed indigenous the heat-killed strain to the living strain

B) evidence that protein passed native the heat-killed strain to the living strain

C) especially bright phosphorescence in the living strain

D) phosphorescence in descendants of the living cells



4) In trying to recognize whether DNA or protein is the genetic material, Hershey and also Chase made usage of i beg your pardon of the following facts?

A) DNA consists of sulfur, conversely, protein walk not.

B) DNA includes phosphorus, whereas protein walk not.

C) DNA consists of nitrogen, whereas protein walk not.

D) DNA consists of purines, whereas protein contains pyrimidines.



5) i m sorry of the complying with investigators to be (were) responsible for the complying with discovery?

In DNA from any kind of species, the amount of adenine equals the lot of thymine, and also the lot of guanine equals the quantity of cytosine.

A) Alfred Hershey and also Martha Chase

B) Oswald Avery, Maclyn McCarty, and also Colin MacLeod

C) Erwin Chargaff

D) Matthew Meselson and also Franklin Stahl



6) Cytosine makes up 42% the the nucleotides in a sample the DNA native an organism. About what percent of the nucleotides in this sample will certainly be thymine?

A) 8%

B) 16%

C) 42%

D) 58%



7) that became noticeable to Watson and also Crick after perfect of their version that the DNA molecule could lug a vast amount that hereditary information in i m sorry of the following?

A) sequence of bases

B) phosphate-sugar backbones

C) complementary pairing the bases

D) side groups of nitrogenous bases



8) In an evaluation of the nucleotide ingredient of DNA, which of the following will it is in found?

A) A = C

B) A = G and C = T

C) A + C = G + T

D) G + C = T + A



9) for a scientific research fair project, two students made decision to repeat the Hershey and also Chase experiment, with modifications. They decided to brand the nitrogen the the DNA, quite than the phosphate. They reasoned the each nucleotide has actually only one phosphate and two to five nitrogens. Thus, labeling the nitrogens would carry out a more powerful signal than labeling the phosphates. Why won"t this experiment work?

A) there is no radiation isotope of nitrogen.

B) radioactive nitrogen has actually a half-life of 100,000 years, and the material would be as well dangerous for as well long.

C) Although over there are an ext nitrogens in a nucleotide, labeling phosphates actually have actually sixteen extra neutrons; therefore, they are much more radioactive.

D) Amino mountain (and therefore proteins) also have nitrogen atoms; thus, the radioactivity would not distinguish in between DNA and proteins.



10) Hershey and also Chase collection out to identify what molecule offered as the unit that inheritance. They perfect a series of experiment in i m sorry E. Coli was infected through a T2 virus. Which molecular component of the T2 virus actually finished up inside the cell?

A) protein


C) ribosome




11) In the polymerization that DNA, a phosphodiester link is formed between a phosphate team of the nucleotide being added and _____ that the critical nucleotide in the polymer.

A) the 5" phosphate B) C6 C) the 3" oh D) a nitrogen from the nitrogen-containing base



12) Replication in prokaryotes differs from replication in eukaryotes for which that the complying with reasons?

A) prokaryotic chromosomes have actually histones, whereas eukaryotic chromosomes do not.

B) prokaryotes chromosomes have actually a single origin that replication, whereas eukaryotic chromosomes have many.

C) The rate of elongation throughout DNA replication is slow in prokaryotes 보다 in eukaryotes.

D) Prokaryotes produce Okazaki fragments during DNA replication, however eukaryotes do not.



13) What is meant by the summary "antiparallel" concerning the strands that consist of DNA?

A) The twisting nature that DNA create nonparallel strands. B) The 5" to 3" direction of one strand runs respond to to the come direction that the other strand. C) basic pairings develop unequal spacing between the 2 DNA strands. D) One strand has only purines and the other consists of only pyrimidines.



14) expect you are listed with an proactively dividing culture of E. Coli bacteria to which radiation thymine has actually been added. What would happen if a cell replicates once in the presence of this radioactive base?

A) among the daughter cells, yet not the other, would have radioactive DNA.

B) no of the two daughter cells would be radioactive.

C) All 4 bases that the DNA would be radioactive.

D) DNA in both daughter cells would certainly be radioactive.



15) In E. Coli, over there is a mutation in a gene referred to as dnaB that changes the helicase that normally acts at the origin. I m sorry of the following would you suppose as a an outcome of this mutation?

A) added proofreading will certainly occur.

B) No replication fork will certainly be formed.

C) Replication will take place via RNA polymerase alone.

D) Replication will require a DNA layout from another source.



16) In E. Coli, i m sorry enzyme catalyzes the elongation that a new DNA strand in the → direction?

A) primase B) DNA ligase C) DNA polymerase III D) helicase



17) eukaryotic bio telomeres replicate in different ways than the remainder of the chromosome. This is a an effect of which of the following?

A) the advancement of telomerase enzyme B) DNA polymerase that cannot replicate the top strand design template to that 5" end C) gaps left at the 5" end of the lagging strand D) gaps left at the 3" end of the lagging strand since of the require for a primer



18) just how does the enzyme telomerase accomplish the an obstacle of replicating the end of straight chromosomes?

A) the adds a solitary cap framework that resists degradation by nucleases. B) it causes particular double-strand DNA division that an outcome in dull ends top top both strands. C) the catalyzes the lengthening the telomeres, compensating because that the shortening that could occur during replication there is no telomerase activity. D) that adds numerous GC pairs, which withstand hydrolysis and also maintain chromosome integrity.



19) The DNA that telomeres has been highly conserved throughout the evolution of eukaryotes. This most most likely reflects _____.

A) the short frequency that mutations arising in this DNA B) ongoing evolution the telomeres C) that brand-new mutations in telomeres have actually been beneficial D) a critical function the telomeres



20) in ~ a particular area the a chromosome, the sequence of nucleotides below is current where the chain opens up to kind a replication fork:

3" C C T A G G C T G C A A T C C 5"

An RNA inside wall is formed beginning at the underlined T (T) that the template. Which of the following represents the primer sequence?

A) 5" G C C T A G G 3" B) 5" A C G T T A G G 3" C) 5" A C G U U A G G 3" D) 5" G C C U A G G 3"



21) In E. Coli, to repair a thymine dimer by nucleotide cut repair, in which order perform the important enzymes act?

A) nuclease, DNA polymerase III, RNA primase

B) helicase, DNA polymerase I, DNA ligase

C) DNA ligase, nuclease, helicase

D) nuclease, DNA polymerase I, DNA ligase



22) In E. Coli, what is the duty of DNA polymerase III?

A) to unwind the DNA helix during replication B) come seal together the broken ends of DNA strands C) to add nucleotides to the finish of a growing DNA strand D) to degrade damaged DNA molecule



23) The difference in between ATP and also the nucleoside triphosphates used throughout DNA synthesis is that _____.

A) the nucleoside triphosphates have actually the street deoxyribose; ATP has actually the sugar ribose

B) the nucleoside triphosphates have actually two phosphate groups; ATP has three phosphate groups

C) ATP has three high-energy bonds; the nucleoside triphosphates have actually two

D) ATP is found only in human cells; the nucleoside triphosphates are discovered in all animal and plant cells



24) The leading and also the lagging strands differ in that _____.

A) the leading strand is synthesized in the very same direction as the activity of the replication fork, and also the lagging strand is synthesized in the opposite direction B) the top strand is synthesized by including nucleotides to the end of the growing strand, and the lagging strand is synthesized by including nucleotides to the finish C) the lagging strand is synthesized continuously, vice versa, the top strand is synthesized in brief fragments that are at some point stitched with each other D) the leading strand is synthesized at double the rate of the lagging strand



25) A brand-new DNA strand elongates just in the 5" come 3" direction since _____.

A) DNA polymerase begins including nucleotides in ~ the 5" end of the layout B) the polarity the the DNA molecule prevents enhancement of nucleotides at the 3" finish C) replication should progress toward the replication fork D) DNA polymerase can include nucleotides just to the cost-free 3" end



26) What is the role of topoisomerase?

A) relieving stress, overload in the DNA ahead of the replication fork

B) elongating new DNA at a replication fork by including nucleotides come the present chain

C) unwinding the the dual helix

D) stabilizing single-stranded DNA in ~ the replication fork



27) What is the function of DNA ligase in the elongation the the lagging strand throughout DNA replication?

A) it synthesizes RNA nucleotides to make a primer.

B) It joins Okazaki pieces together.

C) the unwinds the parental double helix.

D) it stabilizes the unwound parental DNA.



28) which of the adhering to help(s) to hold the DNA strands apart while they are being replicated?

A) primase

B) ligase

C) DNA polymerase

D) single-strand DNA binding proteins



29) individuals with the disorder xeroderma pigmentosum room hypersensitive to sunlight. This occurs since their cells cannot_____.

A) replicate DNA

B) undergo mitosis

C) exchange DNA with other cells

D) fix thymine dimers



30) which of the complying with would you mean of a eukaryote doing not have telomerase?

A) a high probability the somatic cells becoming cancerous

B) an inability to produce Okazaki fragments

C) an i can not qualify to fix thymine dimers

D) a reduction in chromosome size in gametes



31) In the so late 1950s, Meselson and Stahl thrived bacteria in a medium containing "heavy" nitrogen (15N) and also then transferred them to a medium containing 14N. I m sorry of the results in the figure above would be expected after one ring of DNA replication in the existence of 14N?

A) A B) B C) C D) D



32) A an are probe returns v a society of a pathogen found top top a far-off planet. Evaluation shows the it is a carbon-based life-form that has actually DNA. You grow the cell in 15N tool for number of generations and then move them come 14N medium. Which pattern in the figure above would you mean if the DNA was replicated in a conservative manner?

A) A B) B C) C D) D



33) ~ the very first replication to be observed in your experiments experimentation the nature that DNA replication, Meselson and also Stahl could be i was sure of i beg your pardon of the following conclusions?

A) Replication is semi-conservative.

B) Replication is not dispersive.

C) Replication is no conservative.

D) Replication is neither dispersive nor conservative.



34) friend briefly reveal bacteria experience DNA replication come radioactively labeling nucleotides. As soon as you centrifuge the DNA isolated native the bacteria, the DNA separates into two classes. One class of labeled DNA consists of very huge molecules (thousands or also millions the nucleotides long), and also the other includes quick stretches of DNA (several hundred to a couple of thousand nucleotides in length). These two classes that DNA most likely represent _____.

A) leading strands and Okazaki fragments

B) lagging strands and also Okazaki fragments

C) Okazaki fragments and also RNA primers

D) leading strands and RNA primers



35) in ~ a double-stranded DNA molecule, adenine develops hydrogen bonds v thymine and also cytosine forms hydrogen bonds with guanine. This setup _____.

A) allows variable width of the dual helix

B) permits complementary base pairing

C) determines the tertiary framework of a DNA molecule

D) determines the form of protein produced



36) Semiconservative replication requires a template. What is the template?

A) single-stranded binding proteins

B) DNA polymerase

C) one strand the the DNA molecule

D) one RNA molecule



37) DNA is synthesized with a process known as _____.

A) semiconservative replication

B) conservative replication

C) translation

D) transcription



38) that performed classic experiments that supported the semiconservative design of DNA replication?

A) Watson and Crick

B) Meselson and Stahl

C) Hershey and also Chase

D) Franklin and also Wilkins



39) DNA consists of the template needed to copy itself, but it has actually no catalytic task in cells. What catalyzes the development of phosphodiester bonds between surrounding nucleotides in the DNA polymer gift formed?

A) ribozymes

B) DNA polymerase


D) deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates



40) What gives the power for the polymerization reaction in DNA synthesis?


B) DNA polymerase

C) break the hydrogen bonds between complementary DNA strands

D) the deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate substrates



41) refer to the number above. What bases will certainly be added to the primer as DNA replication proceeds? The bases should appear in the new strand in the order the they will certainly be added beginning at the 3" end of the primer.

A) C, A, G, C, A, G, A B) T, C, T, G, C, T, G C) A, G, A, C, G, A, C D) G, T, C, G, T, C, T



42) What is the difference in between the leading strand and also the lagging strand in DNA replication?

A) The leading strand is synthesized in the 3"→5" direction in a discontinuous fashion, while the lagging strand is synthesized in the 5"→3" direction in a continuous fashion. B) The leading strand is synthesized repetitively in the5"→3" direction, when the lagging strand is synthesized discontinuously in the 5" → 3" C) The leading strand requires an RNA primer, conversely, the lagging strand does not. D) there are various DNA polymerases involved in elongation the the leading strand and the lagging strand.



43) What is a significant difference in between eukaryotic DNA replication and prokaryotic DNA replication?

A) prokaryotic replication does not call for a primer. B) prokaryotic chromosomes have actually a solitary origin the replication, while eukaryotic chromosomes have multiple beginnings of replication. C) DNA replication in prokaryotes cells is conservative. DNA replication in eukaryotic bio cells is semi-conservative. D) DNA polymerases the prokaryotes can include nucleotides come both 3’and 5’ends that DNA strands, when those that eukaryotes role only in the 5’ → 3’



44) What is a telomere?

A) the mechanism that holds 2 sister chromatids together

B) DNA replication during telophase

C) the website of beginning of DNA replication

D) the ends of linear chromosomes



45) Telomere shortening puts a limit on the variety of times a cell deserve to divide. Study has shown that telomerase can prolong the life span of cultured human being cells. Exactly how might adding telomerase influence cellular aging?

A) Telomerase will speed up the price of cabinet proliferation.

B) Telomerase eliminates telomere shortening and retards aging.

C) Telomerase shortens telomeres, i m sorry delays cellular aging.

D) Telomerase would have no effect on moving aging.



46) Telomere shortening is a problem in which types of cells?

A) only prokaryotic cells

B) just eukaryotic cells

C) cells in prokaryotes and also eukaryotes



47) i m sorry of the adhering to cells have diminished or very little active telomerase activity?

A) most normal somatic cells

B) most normal germ cells

C) many cancer cells



48) Researchers uncovered E. Coli that had mutation prices one hundred times greater than normal. I beg your pardon of the following is the most likely reason of this results?

A) The single-stranded binding proteins to be malfunctioning. B) There were one or much more mismatches in the RNA primer. C) The proofreading device of DNA polymerase was not working properly. D) The DNA polymerase to be unable to add bases to the finish of the growing nucleic mountain chain.



49) In a healthy cell, the price of DNA fix is equal to the price of DNA mutation. As soon as the rate of fix lags behind the price of mutation, what is a possible fate the the cell?

A) The cell can be changed to a cancer cell. B) RNA may be used rather of DNA as inheritance material. C) The cabinet will end up being embryonic. D) DNA synthetic will proceed by a brand-new mechanism.



50) i m sorry of the following statements describes a eukaryotic bio chromosome?

A) a single strand the DNA

B) a series of nucleosomes wrapped approximately two DNA molecules

C) a chromosome with different numbers of genes in different cell types of an organism

D) a single linear molecule the double-stranded DNA to add proteins



51) If a cell to be unable to produce histone proteins, i beg your pardon of the following would it is in a likely effect?

A) There would be rise in the quantity of "satellite" DNA created during centrifugation.

B) The cell"s DNA couldn"t be packed right into its nucleus.

C) Spindle fibers would not kind during prophase.

D) Amplification of other genes would certainly compensate for the absence of histones.



52) i beg your pardon of the complying with statements is true the histones?

A) each nucleosome is composed of 2 molecules that histone H1.

B) Histone H1 is not present in the nucleosome bead; instead, the draws the nucleosomes together.

C) The carboxyl end of every histone extends external from the nucleosome and is called a "histone tail."

D) Histones are found in mammals, however not in other pets or in plants or fungi.



53) Why perform histones bind tightly come DNA?

A) Histones room positively charged, and also DNA is negatively charged.

B) Histones room negatively charged, and DNA is positive charged.

C) Both histones and also DNA are strongly hydrophobic.

D) Histones room covalently connected to the DNA.



54) i m sorry of the adhering to represents the bespeak of increasingly greater levels of company of chromatin?

A) nucleosome, 30-nm chromatin fiber, looped domain

B) looped domain, 30-nm dyed fiber, nucleosome

C) nucleosome, looped domain, 30-nm dyed fiber

D) 30-nm dyed fiber, nucleosome, looped domain



55) i beg your pardon of the adhering to statements explains chromatin?

A) Heterochromatin is written of DNA, conversely, euchromatin is made of DNA and RNA.

B) Both heterochromatin and also euchromatin are uncovered in the cytoplasm.

C) Heterochromatin is extremely condensed, whereas euchromatin is less compact.

D) Euchromatin is not transcribed, vice versa, heterochromatin is transcribed.



56) i m sorry of the complying with is most critical for the association between histones and also DNA?

A) Histones are tiny proteins.

B) Histones are highly conserved (that is, histones space very comparable in every eukaryote).

C) There room at the very least five different histone protein in every eukaryote.

D) Histones room positively charged.



57) In E. Coli replication the enzyme primase is provided to connect a 5 come 10 basic ribonucleotide strand complementary to the parental DNA strand. The RNA strand serves together a beginning point for the DNA

polymerase the replicates the DNA. If a mutation arisen in the primase gene, i beg your pardon of the following would girlfriend expect?

A) Replication would only happen on the top strand.

B) Replication would certainly only occur on the lagging strand.

C) Replication would certainly not take place on either the leading or lagging strand.

D) Replication would certainly not be impacted as the enzyme primase in associated with RNA synthesis.



58) Hershey and also Chase offered a DNA-based virus for their work. What would the results have actually been if they had used one RNA virus?

A) with an RNA virus radiation protein would have been in the final pellet. B) with an RNA virus radiation RNA would certainly have remained in the last pellet. C) v an RNA virus neither sample would certainly have had actually a radioactive pellet. D) through an RNA virus the protein covering would have been radiation in both samples.



59) The lagging strand is identified by a collection of quick segments the DNA (Okazaki fragments) that will certainly be joined together to form a finished lagging strand. The experiment that brought about the discovery of Okazaki

fragments gave proof for i m sorry of the adhering to ideas?

A) DNA polymerase is a directional enzyme that synthesizes leading and lagging strands throughout replication.

B) DNA is a polymer consist of of four monomers: adenine, thymine, guanine, and also cytosine.

C) DNA is the genetic material.

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D) bacterial replication is fundamentally different from eukaryotic bio replication. The an essential shouldn’t be method longer 보다 the distractors.