one of the canonical frameworks for sulfur dioxide - $ceSO2$ - has sulfur (with a lone electron pair) twin bonded to each oxygen atom to kind a full of 4 bonds for sulfur - which can be accomplished via valence expansion into empty d-orbitals.

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What climate is the hybridization the the valence-expanded sulfur?It is defined as sp². However how deserve to that be? This seems unlikelybecause d-orbitals are connected since the sulfur underwent valenceexpansion.

On could imagine a pair of electron from the 3s/3p oribital(s) being advocated to an empty d-orbital and then having actually the 3s and also 3p orbitals hybridize in come sp².If this is true that would typical that the lone electron pair the thevalence-expanded sulfur consists of 2 electrons occupyingand unhybridized d-orbital. However is this correct?


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The framework of sulfur dioxide ($ceSO2$) is fairly complicated.

The image from socratic.org* explains it fairly well, please find the $ceSO2$ hybridization diagram via the internet Archive.

As seen, every the atoms have $cesp^2$ hybridization.

I"ll only focus on the main sulfur atom.

Two $cesp^2$ orbitals form $cesigma$-bonds through the 2 oxygens.The other $cesp^2$ orbit is where the lone pair lives in.

Now, we have encountered 4 electrons, and only have actually 2 electrons to deal with.

The 2 continuing to be electrons in reality live in the unhybridized $cep$ orbital.

At this point, the two oxygen atom will likewise have 2 electron left to pair through the sulfur atom.

The two oxygen atoms gain to store their very own electron.Sulfur shares two electrons amongst itself and also the other two oxygen atoms.

Thus, no electron resides in the $ced$ orbital.

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$colorRedmboxred$ represents number of electrons (I am too lazy to draw the fish-hooks).$colorGreenmboxgreen$ represents $cesp^2$ orbital.$colorbluemboxBlue$ to represent $cep$ orbital.

Note that the two $cesp^2$ orbitals between sulfur and also the two oxygen atoms space in $cesigma$-bond.

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* The website is no longer available; there is no variation in the web Archive.