L>Student Resource Glossary
Chapter 9
ablation Term used to describe some types of treatment of prostate cancer.
anuria The absence of urine formation by the kidneys.
benign prostatic hyperplasia An enlargement of the prostate gland that most often occurs in men over age 50.
chronic kidney disease The progressive loss of renal function over months or years.
cystitis An inflammation of the bladder.
cystocele A hernia of the bladder through the vaginal wall; also know as a fallen bladder.
cystolith A stone in the urinary bladder.
cystopexy The surgical fixation of the bladder to the abdominal wall.
cystoscopy The visual examination of the urinary bladder using a cystoscope.
dialysis A procedure to remove waste products, such as urea, creatinine, as well as excess water from the blood of a patient whose kidneys no longer function.
diuresis The increased output of urine.
end-stage renal disease The final stage of chronic kidney disease.
enuresis The involuntary discharge of urine.
epispadias A congenital abnormality of the urethral opening. In the male with epispadias, the urethral opening is located on the upper surface of the penis; in the female with epispadias, the urethral opening is in the region of the clitoris.
extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy The destruction of kidney stones with the use of high-energy ultrasonic waves traveling through water or gel.
glomerulonephritis A type of nephritis caused by inflammation of the glomeruli that causes red blood cells and proteins to leak into the urine.
hemodialysis The process by which waste products are filtered directly from the patient’s blood.
hydronephrosis The swelling of one or both kidneys as the result of an obstruction of the flow of urine.
hydroureter The stretching out of a ureter with urine, is caused by a blockage in the ureter that does not allow the urine to flow normally.
hyperproteinuria The presence of abnormally high concentrations of protein in the urine.
hypoproteinemia The presence of abnormally low concentrations of protein in the blood.
hypospadias A congenital abnormality of the urethral opening. In the male with hypospadias, the urethral opening is on the ventral surface of the penis; in the female with hypopadias, the urethra opens into the vagina.
incontinence The inability to control the excretion of urine and/or feces.
interstitial cystitis A chronic inflammation within the walls of the bladder.
intravenous pyelogram A radiographic study of the kidneys and ureters.
nephrolith A stone located in the kidney.
nephrolithiasis Describes the presence of stones in the kidney.
nephrolysis The surgical freeing of a kidney from adhesions.
nephrons The microscopic functional units of each kidney where urine is produced through the processes of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion.
nephropathy Any disease of the kidney.
nephroptosis The prolapse, or dropping down, of a kidney into the pelvic area when the patient stands.
nephropyosis Suppuration of the kidney.
nephrostomy The placement of a catheter to maintain an opening from the pelvis of one or both kidneys to the exterior of the body.
nephrotic syndrome A group of conditions in which excessive amounts of protein are lost through the urine.
neurogenic bladder A urinary problem caused by interference with the normal nerve pathways associated with urination.
nocturia Frequent and excessive urination during the night.
nocturnal enuresis Urinary incontinence during sleep; also known as bed-wetting.
oliguria Scanty urination.
percutaneous nephrolithotomy The surgical removal of a nephrolith through a small incision in the back.
peritoneal dialysis The lining of the peritoneal cavity acts as the filter to remove waste from the blood.
polycystic kidney disease aA genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys.
polyuria Excessive urination, and is a common symptom of diabetes.
prostatism A disorder resulting from the compression, or obstruction, of the urethra due to benign prostatic hyperplasia.
pyeloplasty The surgical repair of the ureter and renal pelvis.
pyelotomy A surgical incision into the renal pelvis.
suprapubic catheterization The placement of a catheter into the bladder through a small incision made through the abdominal wall just above the pubic bone.
uremia A toxic condition resulting from renal failure in which kidney function is compromised and urea and other waste products normally secreted in the urine are retained in the blood.
ureterectasis The enlargement of a ureter.
ureterolith A stone located anywhere along the ureter.
ureterorrhagia The discharge of blood from the ureter.
ureterorrhaphy The surgical suturing of a ureter.
urethritis An inflammation of the urethra.
urethropexy The surgical fixation of the urethra to nearby tissue.
urethrorrhagia Bleeding from the urethra.
urethrostenosis Narrowing of the urethra.
urethrotomy A surgical incision into the urethra for relief of a stricture.
urinary catheterization The insertion of a tube into the bladder in order to procure a sterile specimen for diagnostic purposes, or to drain urine.
vesicovaginal fistula An abnormal opening between the bladder and vagina that allows constant involuntary flow of urine from the bladder into the vagina.

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voiding cystourethrography A diagnostic procedure in which a fluoroscope is used to examine the flow of urine from the bladder and through the urethra.