Phorcys and also the Nereid Dynamene, Greco-Roman mosaic from Antioch C4th A.D., Hatay Archeology Museum

PHORKYS (Phorcys) was the old sea-god the the hidden threats of the deep. He and also his wife Keto (Ceto) were also gods of the biggest of sea creatures. Keto"s name method "whale" or "sea-monster" and also Phorkys" perhaps means "seal" (phokes in Greek).Their children were danger sea-monsters--Skylla (the crab) a monster who devoured pass sailors, Thoosa (the swift) mommy of the rock-tossing cyclops Polyphemos, Ladon (strong flowing) a hundred-headed sea-serpent, Ekhidna (viper) a she-dragon, the Graiai (grey ones) soul of the sea-foam, and also the Gorgones (terrifying ones) who petrifying gaze probably developed the dangerous rocks and reefs of the sea.

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Phorkys was shown in ancient mosaic together a grey-haired, fish-tailed god, v spiky, crab-like skin and also crab-claw forelegs. His attribute was a torch.



<1.1> PONTOS & GAIA (Hesiod Theogony 237, Apollodorus 1.10)


<1.1> THE GRAIAI, THE GORGONES, EKHIDNA, DRAKON-LADON (by Keto) (Hesiod Theogony 270)<1.2> THE GRAIAI, THE GORGONES (Aeschylus Prometheus tied 793)<1.3> THE PHORKIDES, THE GORGONES (by Keto) (Apollodorus 1.10, Nonnus Dionysiaca 31.13)<1.4> THE PHORKIDES (Pindar Pythian Ode, Hyginus Preface, Ovid Metamorphoses 4.772)<2.1> THOOSA (Homer Odyssey 1.70)<3.1> SKYLLA (by Krataiis - Trienos) (Apollodorus E7.20)<3.2> SKYLLA (by Krataiis - Hekate) (Apollonius Rhodius 4.828)


PHORCUS, PHORCYS, or PHORCYN (Phorkos, Phorkus, Phorkun.). Follow to the Homeric poems, an old male ruling end the sea, or "the old guy of the sea," to whom a harbour in Ithaca was dedicated. He is described as the dad of the nymph Thoosa (Od. i. 71, xiii. 96, 345). Later writers speak to him a child of Pontus and Ge, and also a brothers of Thaumas, Nereus, Eurybia, and also Ceto (Hes. Theog. 237; Apollod. I. 2. § 6). Through his sisters Ceto he came to be the father of the Graeae and also Gorgones (Hes. Theog. 270, &c.), the Hesperian dragon (ibid. 333, &c.), and also the Hesperides (Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. iv. 1399); and also by Hecate or Cratais, he was the dad of Scylla. (Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. iv. 828; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 1714; Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 45.) Servius (ad Aen. v. 824) calls that a son of Neptune and Thoosa.

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Source: dictionary of Greek and also Roman Biography and Mythology.


CLASSICAL literary works QUOTES

Phorcys and also Ceto, Greco-Roman mosaic, Bardo national Museum

Homer, Odyssey 1. 68 ff (trans. Shewring) (Greek epos C8th B.C.) :"The nymphe Thoosa, son of Phorkys (Phorcys) the mr of the barren brine (medon atrygetos halos), and she lay v Poseidon within her arching caverns."

Homer, Odyssey 13. 96 ff : "On the coast of Ithaka (Ithaca) is a certain haven, spiritual to the old sea-god Phorkys (Phorcys) (limen Phorkynos)."

Homer, Odyssey 13. 345 ff : "Here is the harbour spiritual to the old sea-god Phorkys (limen Phorkynos)."

Hesiod, Theogony 233 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :"And Pontos (Pontus, the Sea) begat Nereus . . . And Pontos again fathered an excellent Thaumas and also proud Phorkys (Phorcys), being mated v Gaia (Gaea, the Earth), and fair-cheeked Keto (Ceto) and Eurybia."

Hesiod, Theogony 270 & 332 ff : "And to Phorkys (Phorcys) Keto (Ceto) boring the Graiai (Graeae), v fair faces and gray indigenous birth, and also these the gods who are immortal and men who walk ~ above the earth contact Graiai, the gray sisters, Pemphredo robed in beauty and also Enyo robed in saffron . . . And also the Gorgones (Gorgons) who, past the famous stream the Okeanos (Oceanus), live in the utmost location toward night, through the singing Hesperides: they are Sthenno, Euryale, and Medousa (Medusa) . . .But she bore an additional unmanageable monster prefer nothing person nor choose the immortal god either, in a hole cave. This was the divine and also haughty Ekhidna (Echidna), and fifty percent of her is a Nymphe through a fair face and eyes glancing, yet the other half is a monstrous line . . . Keto, join in love through Phorkys, mothered the youngest that the deadly Drakones (Dragon-Serpents) . . . The one which guards the all-golden applies."

Stasinus of Cyprus or Hegesias of Salamis, Cypria Fragment 21 (from Herodian, On peculiar Diction) (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) : "By him she conceived and also bare the Gorgones (Gorgons), fearful monsters who stayed in Sarpedon, a rocky island in deep-eddying Okeanos (Oceanus)."

Pindar, Pythian Ode 12. 14 (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) :"The grim offspring of Phorkos (Phorcys)."

Alcman, Fragment 1 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (Greek lyric C7th B.C.) :"Let no male . . . Effort to marry . . . A daughter of Porkos (Phorcys)."

Aeschylus, Prometheus tied 793 ff (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :"The Gorgonean levels of Kisthene (Cisthene), wherein the Phorkides (daughters the Phorkys) dwell, ancient maids (dênaiai korai), three in number, shaped choose swans (kyknomorphoi), own one eye among them and a solitary tooth . . . And also near them space their 3 winged sisters, the snake-haired (drakontomalloi) Gorgones (Gorgons)."

Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 10 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :"The kids of Pontos (Pontus, Sea) and also Ge (Gaea, Earth) were Phorkos (Phorcus), Thaumas, Nereus, Eurybia, and also Keto (Ceto) . . . Phorkos and Keto had the Phorkides (Phorcides) and the Gorgones (Gorgons)."

Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca E7. 20 :"Skylla (Scylla), daughter the Krataeis (Crataeis) and Trienos or Phorkos (Phorcus). She had actually the face and breast the a woman, but from her flanks flourished six dog-heads and twelve dog-feet."

Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 4. 825 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) :"The hateful den the Ausonian Skylla (Scylla), the evil monster borne come Phorkys (Phorcys) through night-wandering Hekate (Hecate), whom men speak to Krataiis (Crataeis)."

Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 4. 1593 ff : "They urged Iason (Jason) to kill the best of your sheep and also hold it out to the god through words that praise. Iason hastily selected one, lifted that up, and killed it over the stern, praying in this words : ‘God the the sea , friend that appeared to united state on the shores of this waters, even if it is the females of the Brine understand you together that sea-wonder Triton, or together Phorkys (Phorcys), or together Nereus, be gracious and also grant united state the happy return we desire.’"

Lycophron, Alexandra 44 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) :" additionally slew the fierce hound the wached the small straits the the Ausonian sea, fishing over her cave, the bull-slaying lioness whom her father revived to life, burning she flesh v brands : she that feared not Leptynis , goddess the the underworld."

Lycophron, Alexandra 375 ff : "Trykhantes (Trychantes), and rugged Nedon, and all ye pits of Dirphossos and also Diakria (Diacria) , and also thou haunt of Phorkys (Phorcys) ."

Lycophron, Alexandra 477 ff : "In location of the woodpecker , he swallowed in his neck a scorpion and also bewailed come Phorkos (Phorcus) the burden of his angry travail, seek to discover counsel in his pain."

Pausanias, description of greece 2. 21. 5 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :"The Gorgon Medousa (Medusa). Ns omit the miraculous, yet give the rational components of the story around her. ~ the fatality of her father, Phorkys (Phorcys), she reigned end those living around Lake Tritonis ."

Pseudo-Hyginus, Preface (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :"From Pontos (Sea) and Terra (Earth) : Thaumas, tusciuersus, Cepheus."

Pseudo-Hyginus, Preface :"From Phorcus and also Ceto : Phorcides, Pemphredo, Enyo, Persis (for this critical others say Dino). Native Gorgon and also Ceto, Sthenno, Euryale, Medusa."

Ovid, Metamorphoses 4. 770 (trans. Melville) (Roman epos C1st B.C. To C1st A.D.) :"Twin sisters, the Phorcides (daughters that Phorcys) , lived who common a solitary eye."

Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 3. 725 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epos C1st A.D.) :"From far away old Phorcys offers a signal over all the deep, and making for his cavern gathers his huge shell-encrusted seals together."

Statius, Silvae 2. 2. 14 (trans. Mozley) (Roman city C1st A.D.) :"The crescent waters of a peaceful bay break with the curving line of cliff on one of two people hand. The point out is of Nature"s giving: one solitary beach lies between sea and also hill, ending towards the soil in overhanging rocks . . . Right here would the nimble choir that Phorcus great to bathe, and also Cymodoce through dripping tresses and sea-green Galatea."

Nonnus, Dionysiaca 31. 13 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epos C5th A.D.) :" had taken the travelling eye of Phorkys" (Phorcys") old one-eyed daughter unsleeping ."