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They are the elements in groups 14-16 of the periodic table. They are not able to conduct electricity or heat very well. As opposed to metals, non-metallic elements are very brittle, and cannot be rolled into wires or pounded into sheets. They exist in two of the three states of matter at room temperature: gases (such as oxygen) and solids (such as carbon). They have no metallic luster, and do not reflect light.
The elements are found along the step like line between metals and non-metals of the periodic table. It is a chemical element with properties that are in-between or a mixture of those of metals and nonmetals, and which is considered to be difficult to classify unambiguously as either a metal or a nonmetal. They are metallic looking solids that have a brittle comportment, show intermediate to relatively good electrical conductivity, and have the band structure of a semimetal or semiconductor.
They are found in group 1 of the periodic table. They are all shiny, soft, highly reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure and readily lose their outermost electron to form cations with charge +1. They can all be cut easily with a knife due to their softness, exposing a shiny surface that tarnishes rapidly in air due to oxidation. Because of their high reactivity, they must be stored under oil to prevent reaction with air, and are found naturally only in salts and never as the free element. They are malleable, ductile, and are good conductors of heat and electricity.
They are found in the second group of the periodic table. they are all shiny, silvery-white, somewhat reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure and readily lose their two outermost electrons to form cations with charge +2. The alkaline earth metals are all soft, and have relatively low densities, melting points, and boiling points
They are found in the the center of the periodic table at periods 4, 5, and 6 and groups 3-12. They are both ductile and malleable, and conduct electricity and heat. Their valence electrons, or the electrons they use to combine with other elements, are present in more than one shell. This is the reason why they often exhibit several common oxidation states.
They are found in the in 17th group of the periodic table or 2nd group from extreme right. They have relatively low melting and boiling points that increase steadily down the group. Near room temperature. All of the elements are colored, with the color becoming more intense moving down the group. They are poor thermal and electrical conductors in all phases, and as solids they are brittle and crumbly. They have distinctive, unpleasant odors, will burn exposed flesh, and are toxic.
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They are found in group 18 of the periodic table. They are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and nonflammable under standard conditions. They have full valence electron shells. Valence electrons are the outermost electrons of an atom and are normally the only electrons that participate in chemical bonding. They have weak interatomic force, and consequently have very low melting and boiling points. They include Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon, and Radon.