crater lake in oregon actually occupies a caldera, not a crater.
Crater lake in oregon actually occupies a caldera, not a crater.
L> Geologic background of Crater Lake. Geologic background Crater Lake partially fills a type of volcanic depression called a caldera that developed by the please of a 3,700 m (12,000 ft) volcano known as mountain Mazama during an massive eruption approximately 7,700 year ago. The climactic (caldera-forming) eruption of mount Mazama adjusted the landscape all about the volcano. Pyroclastic operation of pumice and also ash ravaged the neighboring area, including every one of the flow valleys the drained mountain Mazama to as far as 64 km (40 mi) away, and a ceiling of pumice and ash fell to the northeast that the volcano at the very least as far as central Canada. Erosion removed much of this material, feeding rivers that lugged it much from its source, eventually into the Pacific Ocean. Prior to the climactic event, mountain Mazama had actually a 400,000 year background of activity comparable to other Cascade volcanic centers such as Mount Shasta. Because the climactic eruption, there have actually been several much less violent, smaller sized postcaldera eruptions within the caldera itself. Mountain Mazama to be a large composite volcano built by episodic growth of countless overlapping shield and composite volcanurbanbreathnyc.coms, every of which more than likely was active for a comparatively short period. Mountain Mazama climbed to an approximate elevation of 3,700 m (12,000 ft) above sea level. The erupted magma was mostly andesite. The caldera wall surface displays the geologic layering of lava flows v time. As the volcanic complicated evolved, for this reason did its eruptive style. The eruptions of the last ~70,000 years were extremely explosive; the eruptive magma were silica-rich (dacite and rhyodacite). The eruptions of the critical ~30,000 year were much less explosive; the eruptive magma were low in silica. The only activity in the 30,000 years record, before the caldera-forming climactic eruption that ~7,700 years ago, was minimal to a small variety of preclimactic pyroclastic eruptions and ensuing lava operation of rhyodacite. Mountain Mazama began its climactic eruption around 7,700 years ago, punch out around 50 km3 (12 mi3) of magma together pyroclastic products (mostly rhyodacite pumice and also fine ash) in at many a couple of days. The volcanic ash covered parts of the northwestern claims to as far as central Canada. Rarely particles the Mazama ash have even been found in old ice from Greenland. The airfall pumice and ash extended a complete surface area of an ext than 2,600,000 km2 (1,000,000 mi2) at the very least 1 mm (fraction of an inch) thick, and also no much less than 13,000 km2 (5,000 mi2) an ext than 15 centimeter (6 in) thick. A volume of 42-54 km3 (10-13 mi3) that the mountaintop had disappeared. Click below to see a map the the distribution of pumice deposits. Image obtained from the 1988 editon that the 1:62,500 range topographic map licensed has been granted "Crater Lake national Park and also Vicinity, Oreg." The climactic eruption to be fed by magma the had accumulated in a chamber around 5 km (3 mi) below the surface. As the huge volume the magma (54-63 km3, or 13-15 mi3) was swiftly removed to feed the eruption, the roof that the magma chamber collapsed, forming the bowl-shape depression known as a caldera. The caldera has a diameter of roughly 8 km (5 mi) phibìc to south and also 10 km (6 mi) eastern to west, v an almost right depth of 1,200 m (4,000 ft) from the caldera rim to the lake floor. Pyroclastic flows deposited pumice and also ash on all flanks of mount Mazama and in valleys below. The landscape after the eruption to be a scene of devastation. Geologists have figured out that the collapse was a fairly quick event during the eruption, occupying perhaps a couple of hours or days. All the valleys neighboring the volcano were partially filled with hot pyroclastic flows. The caldera was partially filled v pyroclastic materials and rock debris from its turbulent walls. Subsequent to the climactic eruption, all volcanic task has occurred within the caldera itself. Renewed volcanism developed the postcaldera volcanurbanbreathnyc.coms the the main platform, Merriam Cone, and Wizard Island. Following the climactic eruption, the took possibly 250 year of rain and also snow accumulation for the caldera to fill to its present-day lake level. The lake level is preserved by a balance in between precipitation and also evaporation plus seepage. By that time, the postcaldera volcanurbanbreathnyc.coms, nearly every one of which are covert beneath the surface ar of the lake, had actually finished their eruptions of andesite lava. Just a little rhyodacite dome was erupted later, around 5,000 years ago. Studies show that hydrothermal tasks are present at the lake floor. Chemical evaluation of the lake water and also hydrothermal studies suggest that heat water enters the lake native the lake bottom. The water is cook by hot rock in ~ the fractured caldera floor. Scientists are not particular whether any type of magma still continues to be underground yet it is most likely that mount Mazama will certainly erupt again someday. The adhering to diagrams show the formation of Crater Lake throughout the climactic eruption of mount Mazama. Diagrams space by Charles Bacon, obtained from the 1988 editon of the 1:62,500 range topographic map entitled "Crater Lake nationwide Park and Vicinity, Oreg." number A: Plinian eruption shop airfall pumice and ash, blown by winds come north and east. figure B: Vent enlarges and eruption column collapses; pyroclastic flows deposit the Wineglass Welded Tuff on north and east flanks. figure C: Roof the magma chamber collapses, forming caldera as brand-new vents open over fractures; pyroclastic flows deposit pumice and ash on all flanks of mount Mazama and also in valleys below. number D: Caldera has actually been partly filled through pumice and also ash native the eruption presented in C and with block of rock from the caldera walls; weak, dice explosions within the caldera deposit ash ~ above the caldera rim; pyroclastic-flow deposits develop fumaroles and also gradually cool. number E: Crater Lake today.