There space many varieties of urbanbreathnyc.comical bonds and forces that bind molecules together. The two most simple types of binding are characterized as either ionic or covalent. In ionic bonding, atoms transfer electrons to each other. Ionic bonds need at the very least one electron donor and also one electron acceptor. In contrast, atoms with the exact same electronegativity share electrons in covalent bonds, since neither atom preferentially attractive or repels the mutual electrons.

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Ionic bonding is the complete transfer the valence electron(s) in between atoms. It is a type of urbanbreathnyc.comical bond that generates 2 oppositely charged ions. In ionic bonds, the steel loses electron to end up being a positively charged cation, whereas the nonmetal accepts those electrons to become a negatively charged anion. Ionic bonds need an electron donor, often a metal, and an electron acceptor, a nonmetal.

Ionic bonding is observed because metals have few electrons in their outer-most orbitals. By losing those electrons, these steels can accomplish noble gas configuration and satisfy the octet rule. Similarly, nonmetals that have close to 8 electron in their valence shells often tend to easily accept electron to accomplish noble gas configuration. In ionic bonding, much more than 1 electron deserve to be donated or got to meet the octet rule. The charges on the anion and also cation exchange mail to the variety of electrons donated or received. In ionic bonds, the net charge of the compound need to be zero.


This salt molecule donates the lone electron in its valence orbit in stimulate to attain octet configuration. This create a positively charged cation due to the ns of electron.

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In this example, the sodium atom is donating that 1 valence electron to the chlorine atom. This creates a salt cation and a chlorine anion. An alert that the net charge of the resulting link is 0.


In this example, a phosphorous atom is sharing its three unpaired electrons with three chlorine atoms. In the end product, all 4 of this molecules have 8 valence electrons and also satisfy the octet rule.

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1. Space these compounds ionic or covalent?


2. In the adhering to reactions, suggest whether the reactants and also products space ionic or covalently bonded.



b) Clarification: What is the nature of the bond between sodium and amide? What kind of link forms in between the anion carbon chain and sodium?