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Janeway CA Jr, Travers P, Walport M, et al. Immunobiology: The Immune mechanism in Health and also Disease. Fifth edition. Brand-new York: Garland Science; 2001.

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Many the the bacteria that reason infectious an illness in humans multiply in theextracellular spaces of the body, and most intracellular pathogens spread by moving fromcell come cell v the extracellular fluids. The extracellular spaces are protected bythe humoral immune response, in which antibodies created by B cell causethe devastation of extracellular microorganisms and also prevent the spread of intracellularinfections. The activation of B cells and also their differentiation right into antibody-secretingplasma cells (Fig. 9.1) is prompted by antigenand usually needs helper T cells. The ax ‘helper T cell’ is often used to median acell from the TH2 course of CD4 T cell (see chapter 8), yet a subset the TH1 cells can also help inB-cell activation. In this chapter us will thus use the hatchet helper Tcell to mean any type of armed effector CD4 T cell that can activate a B cell. HelperT cells also control isotype switching and also have a duty in initiating somatichypermutation that antibody variable V-region genes, molecular procedures that weredescribed in thing 4.


Figure 9.1

The humoral immune solution is mediated through antibody molecules that aresecreted by plasma cells. Antigen that binds to the B-cell antigen receptor signals B cells and also is, atthe exact same time, internalized and processed right into peptides the activate armedhelper (more...)

Antibodies add to immune in three key ways (see Fig. 9.1). To get in cells, viruses and intracellular bacteriabind to particular molecules ~ above the target cell surface. Antibodies that tie to thepathogen can prevent this and also are stated to neutralize the pathogen. Neutralization by antibodies is likewise important inpreventing bacterial toxin from beginning cells. Antitoxin protect versus bacteriathat multiply external cells mainly by facilitating uptake of the microorganism by phagocyticcells the are devoted to ruin ingested bacteria. Antibodies carry out this in either oftwo ways. In the first, bound antitoxin coating the pathogen are recognized by Fc receptors on phagocytic cells that bind to the antibody continuous C region (see section 4-18). Coating the surface of a virus toenhance phagocytosis is called opsonization. Alternatively, antitoxin binding to the surface ar of a microorganism canactivate the proteins of the complement system, i m sorry was explained in chapter 2. Complement activationresults in match proteins gift bound come the pathogen surface, and also these opsonizethe microorganism by binding match receptors on phagocytes. Other match componentsrecruit phagocytic cell to the website of infection, and also the terminal contents ofcomplement can lyse particular microorganisms straight by forming pores in their membranes.Which effector instrument are involved in a certain response is figured out by theisotype or course of the antibodies produced.

In the an initial part of this chapter us will describe the interactions of B cell withhelper T cells that lead to the manufacturing of antibodies, the affinity tires ofthis antibody response, the isotype switching the confers sensible diversity, and also thegeneration of memory B cells that administer long-lasting immune to reinfection. In therest of the chapter we will talk about in information the mechanisms through which antibodies containand eliminate infections.

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B-cell activation by armed helper T cellsThe distribution and functions the immunoglobulin isotypesThe devastation of antibody-coated pathogens via Fc receptorsSummary to thing 9General referencesSection references

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