Definition: Risk mitigation plan is the procedure of developing options and plot to boost opportunities and also reduce risks to project objectives <1>. Hazard mitigation implementation is the process of executing risk mitigation actions. Danger mitigation progression monitoring has tracking determined risks, identifying brand-new risks, and evaluating risk process effectiveness transparent the task <1>.

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Keywords: risk, risk management, threat mitigation, danger mitigation implementation, hazard mitigation planning, danger mitigation progression monitoring SE roles & Expectations: systems engineers (SEs) functioning on government programs develop actionable danger mitigation strategies and also monitoring metrics, monitor implementation of danger mitigation plans come ensure successful project and also program completion, collaborate with the government team in conducting threat reviews throughout projects and programs, and analyze metrics to identify ongoing risk status and also identify serious threats to elevate to the sponsor or customer <2>.


Risk mitigation planning, implementation, and progress surveillance are depicted in figure 1. As part of an iterative process, the threat tracking tool is used to document the results of risk prioritization evaluation (step 3) that gives input to both threat mitigation (step 4) and risk influence assessment (step 2).

Figure 1. Threat Management: an essential Steps <3>

The hazard mitigation step involves development of mitigation plans designed to manage, eliminate, or mitigate risk to an agree level. Once a plan is implemented, it is continuous monitored to assess its efficacy v the will of amendment the course-of-action if needed.

Risk Mitigation Strategies

General indict for using risk mitigation handling choices are presented in number 2. These choices are based upon the assessed combination of the probability the occurrence and severity the the repercussion for an established risk. This guidelines are appropriate for many, but not all, projects and also programs.

Figure 2. Hazard Mitigation Handling options <3>

Risk mitigation handling options include:

Assume/Accept: identify the existence of a specific risk, and make a intended decision to expropriate it there is no engaging in special initiatives to control it. Approval of project or routine leaders is required.Avoid: change program demands or constraints to eliminate or mitigate the risk. This adjustment might be accommodated through a change in funding, schedule, or technical requirements.Control: Implement plot to minimization the affect or likelihood the the risk.Transfer: Reassign business accountability, responsibility, and also authority to an additional stakeholder willing to accept the risk.Watch/Monitor: screen the atmosphere for changes that affect the nature and/or the impact of the risk.

Each that these options requires occurring a setup that is implemented and also monitored for effectiveness. More information ~ above handling options is debated under finest practices and also lessons learned below.

From a systems design perspective, typical methods of danger reduction or mitigation with determined program dangers include the following, listed in stimulate of raising seriousness of the danger <4>:

Intensified technical and also management reviews of the design processSpecial monitor of designated component engineeringSpecial analysis and trial and error of vital design itemsRapid prototyping and test feedbackConsideration the relieving an essential design requirementsInitiation that fallback parallel developments

When determining the technique for risk mitigation, the SE can assist the customer assess the performance, schedule, and cost results of one mitigation strategy end another. For something favor "parallel" advance mitigation, SEs could aid the government determine even if it is the expense could much more than double, if time can not be expanded by much (e.g., dual the price for parallel effort, yet also included cost for added program office and also user engagement). Because that conducting fast prototyping or changing operational requirements, SEs have the right to use knowledge in developing prototypes and also using prototyping and experimenting (see SE Guide article on one-of-a-kind Considerations for conditions of Uncertainty: Prototyping and also Experimentation and the Requirements engineering topic) for projecting the cost and time to command a prototype to aid mitigate particular risks (e.g., requirements). Implementing more engineering reviews and special oversight and also testing might require changes to contractual agreements. systems engineers can help the federal government assess these (schedule and cost) by helping identify the communication of estimates for additional contractor efforts and providing a reality examine for these estimates."s CASA

and also the CCG
Investment monitoring practice department have actually experience and a knowledge base in many advancement activities across a wide spectrum of methods and can assist with realistic assessments of mitigation alternatives.

For related information, refer to the other write-ups in this Risk monitoring topic area that the SE Guide.

Best Practices and also Lessons Learned

What actions room needed?

When need to actions it is in completed?

Handling OptionsAssume/Accept. Collaborate through the operational customers to produce a collective understanding the risks and also their implications. Dangers can be identified as impacting timeless cost, schedule, and also performance parameters. Dangers should additionally be characterized as impact to mission performance resulting from reduced technical power or capability. Develop an expertise of every these impacts. Bringing users into the mission influence characterization is specifically important to selecting which "assume/accept" choice is eventually chosen. Users will decide whether agree the after-effects of a threat is acceptable. Provide the users through the vulnerabilities influence a risk, countermeasures that have the right to be performed, and residual danger that might occur. Assist the users understand the expenses in terms of time and money.Avoid. Again, work with customers to attain a cumulative understanding the the implications of risks. Administer users v projections of schedule adjustments required to minimize risk connected with modern technology maturity or extr development to boost performance. Determine capabilities that will be delayed and any effects resulting native dependencies on other efforts. This information far better enables customers to interpret the operational ramifications of an "avoid" option.Control. Help control threats by performing analyses of various mitigation options. Because that example, one choice is to usage a commercially available ability instead the a contractor emerged one. In developing choices for managing risk in her program, seek out potential remedies from similar risk situations of various other customers, industry, and academia. As soon as considering a solution from an additional organization, take it special treatment in assessing any architectural changes needed and also their implications.Transfer. Reassigning accountability, responsibility, or authority because that a hazard area to an additional organization deserve to be a double-edged sword. It may make sense when the risk requires a narrow committed area of expertise not normally uncovered in program offices. But, transferring a danger to one more organization can an outcome in dependencies and loss of manage that may have actually their own complications. Position yourself and your customer to take into consideration a transfer option by acquiring and maintaining awareness of establishments within your customer room that emphasis on specialized needs and also their solutions. Get this awareness as early on in the regimen acquisition cycle together possible, as soon as transfer choices are more easily implemented.Watch/Monitor. When a risk has been identified and also a plan put in place to manage it, there can be a propensity to embrace a "heads down" attitude, specifically if the execution that the mitigation appears to be operating on "cruise control." withstand that inclination. Periodically revisit the simple assumptions and premises of the risk. Scan the environment to watch whether the instance has adjusted in a way that influence the nature or influence of the risk. The risk might have changed sufficiently so the the current mitigation is ineffective and also needs to be scrapped in favor of a various one. ~ above the other hand, the risk might have reduced in a method that allows resources specialized to that to be redirected.Determining Mitigation PlansUnderstand the users and their needs. The users/operational decision machines will it is in the decision authority for accepting and also avoiding risks. Keep a close connection with the user neighborhood throughout the system engineering life cycle. Realize that mission accomplishment is paramount come the user community and also acceptance that residual risk should be steady rooted in a mission decision.Seek the end the experts and also use them. Seek out the professionals within and outside"s technological centers exist to administer support in your specialty areas. They recognize what"s feasible, what"s worked and also been implemented, what"s easy, and also what"s hard. They have the knowledge and also experience important to risk assessment in their area the expertise. Recognize our internal centers the excellence, maintain relationships through them, and know when and how to usage them.Recognize threats that recur. Identify and maintain awareness the the risks that space "always there" — interfaces, dependencies, changes in needs, environment and requirements, info security, and also gaps or feet in contractor and also program office ability sets. Help create an accept by the government that these risks will occur and also recur and also that plans for mitigation are essential up front. Recommend assorted mitigation ideologies — including adoption of an advancement strategy, prototyping, experimentation, engagement with broader stakeholder community, and also the like.Encourage threat taking. Offered all that has actually been claimed in this article and its companions, this may show up to be an odd piece of advice. The suggest is that there are after-effects of no taking risks, some of which may be negative. Aid the customer and also users know that reality and the potential after-effects of being overly timid and not taking certain risks in her program. An instance of a negative consequence for not taking a risk once delivering a full ability is that an adversary can realize a gain versus our to work users. Threats are not defeats, but simply bump in the roadway that should be anticipated and also dealt with.Recognize opportunities. Help the government understand and also see avenues that might arise native a risk. As soon as considering choices for managing a certain risk, be sure to evaluate whether they provide an opportunistic advantage by boosting performance, capacity, flexibility, or desirable characteristics in other areas not directly linked with the risk.Encourage deliberate factor to consider of mitigation options. This item of advice is good anytime, but particularly when supporting a fast-paced, fast reaction federal government program the is juggling many competing priorities. Carefully analyze mitigation choices and encourage thorough conversation by the routine team. This is the form of the wisdom "go slow-moving to walk fast."Not all threats require mitigation plans. Risk occasions assessed as tool or high criticality should get in risk mitigation planning and implementation. On the other hand, think about whether part low criticality risks could just it is in tracked and monitored on a clock list. Husband her risk-related resources.Mitigation plan ContentDetermine the suitable risk manager. The danger manager is responsible because that identifying and also implementing the risk mitigation plan. The or she must have the knowledge, authority, and also resources come implement the plan. Hazard mitigation tasks will not be reliable without an engaged risk manager. It might be essential to engage higher levels in the customer company to certain the need for the risk manager is addressed. This deserve to be daunting and usually entails engaging more senior levels of the team together well.Develop a high-level mitigation strategy. This is one overall method to mitigate the risk affect severity and/or probability that occurrence. The could impact a number of risks and also include, because that example, increasing staffing or reducing scope.Identify actions and also steps required to implement the mitigation strategy. Ask these vital questions:What actions are needed?Make sure you have actually the right departure criteria for each. Because that example, ideal decisions, agreements, and actions resulting from a meeting would be compelled for exit, not simply the reality that the meeting was held.Look because that evaluation, proof, and validation the met criteria. Consider, because that example, metrics or test events.Include only and also all stakeholders pertinent to the step, action, or decisions.When must actions be completed?Backward Planning: evaluate the risk affect and schedule of need for the successful completion that the program and also evaluate test events, architecture considerations, and more.Forward Planning: identify the time required to complete each activity step and also when the supposed completion date should be.Evaluate crucial decision points and also determine when a relocate to a contingency setup should it is in taken.Who is the responsible action owner?What resources are required? Consider, because that example, extr funding or collaboration.How will certainly this action reduce the probability or severity the impact?Develop a contingency setup ("fall back, plan B") for any kind of high risk.Are cues and also triggers identified to activate contingency plans and also risk reviews?Include decision suggest dates to move to fallback plans. The day to relocate must permit time toexecute the contingency plan.Evaluate the condition of each action. Recognize when each action is supposed to be completed successfully.Integrate plans into IMS and program monitoring baselines. Threat plans room integral come the program, no something apart from it.Monitoring RiskInclude risk surveillance as part of the program review and also manage continuously. Monitoring risks should be a standard component of program reviews. At the very same time, dangers should be controlled continuously fairly than just prior to a program review. Consistently review to plan in monitoring meetings.Review and also track hazard mitigation actions because that progress. Determine when each activity is meant to be perfect successfully.Refine and redefine strategies and action steps as needed.Revisit risk analysis as plans and also actions are successfully completed. Space the threats burning down? Evaluate impact to program crucial path.Routinely reassess the program"s risk exposure. Evaluate the present environment for brand-new risks or alteration to present risks.

References & Resources

Garvey, P.R., 2008, Analytical approaches for threat Management: A Systems engineering Perspective, Chapman-Hall/CRC-Press, Taylor & Francis team (UK), Boca Raton, London, brand-new York, ISBN: 1584886374.Kossiakoff, A. And also W.N. Sweet, 2003, Systems engineering Principles and Practice, man Wiley and Sons, Inc., pp. 98-106.

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Additional references & Resources

International the supervisory board on Systems engineering (INCOSE), January 2010, INCOSE Systems design Handbook, version 3.2, INCOSE-TP-2003-002-03.2, pp. 213-225.